Statistical information Zimbabwe 1990Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Zimbabwe in the World
Zimbabwe in the World


Zimbabwe - Introduction 1990
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Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE the nation's first prime minister has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.

Zimbabwe - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld; mountains in east


Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin
Land use

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 62% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked

Zimbabwe - People 1990
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Population: 10,392,161 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Zimbabwean(s; adjective--Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups: 98% African (71% Shona, 16% Ndebele, 11% other; 1% white, 1% mixed and Asian

Languages: English (official; Shona and Ndebele

Religions: 50% syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs), 25% Christian, 24% indigenous beliefs, a few Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 42 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 74%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Zimbabwe - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands, Victoria (commonly called Masvingo)

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987; Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987)

Legislative branch: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Police Support Unit, People's Militia

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at 2,852 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 332-7,100; US--Ambassador-designate Steven RHODES; Embassy at 172 Rhodes Avenue, Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3,340, Harare; telephone 263o (14) 794-521

Flag descriptionflag of Zimbabwe: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Zimbabwe - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Agriculture employs a majority of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The agro-based manufacturing sector produces a variety of goods and contributes about 25% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years resulted in not only an uneven growth rate, but one that did not equal the 3% annual increase in population.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 15% of GDP and employs over 70% of population; 40% of land area divided into 6,000 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops--corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock--cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (1988 est.)

Labor force: 3,100,000; 74% agriculture, 16% transport and services, 10% mining, manufacturing, construction (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: at least 20% (1988 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $2.4 billion; expenditures $3.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $290 million (FY90)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: agricultural 34% (tobacco 21%, other 13%), manufactures 19%, gold 11%, ferrochrome 11%, cotton 6%
Partners: Europe 55% (EC 41%, Netherlands 6%, other 8%), Africa 22% (South Africa 12%, other 10%), US 6%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%, chemicals 16%, fuels 15%
Partners: EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%, Japan 4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.96 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1--2.2873 (January 1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987), 1.6650 (1986), 1.6119 (1985)

Zimbabwe - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Zimbabwe - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Zimbabwe - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $446.7 million (FY89 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Zimbabwe - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 506 total, 420 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 8 km, refined products



Waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Zimbabwe - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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