Ethiopia 1991Ethiopia

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Ethiopia - Introduction 1991
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Background: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa.

Ethiopia - Geography 1991
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
5,141 km total
Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km

Coastline: 1,094 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation; some areas prone to extended droughts

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley


Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use

Land use: arable land: 12%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 41%; forest and woodland 24%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; major resettlement project--that was ongoing in rural areas and would have significantly altered population distribution and settlement patterns over the next several decades--has been derailed because of ongoing civil wars geoad2

Ethiopia - People 1991
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Population: 53,191,127 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

Nationality: noun--Ethiopian(s; adjective--Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Religions: Muslim 40-45%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist 15-20%, other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 45 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 53 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 62% (male NA%, female NA%) age 10 and over can read and write (1983 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ethiopia - Government 1991
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Country name: conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Government type: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) took control in Addis Ababa; on 29 May 1991 Issayas AFEWORKE, secretary general of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), announced the formation of a provisional government in Eritrea, in preparation for an eventual referendum on independence for the province

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 25 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular--astedader akababi) and 5 autonomous regions* (rasgez akababiwach, singular--rasgez akababi; Addis Abeba (Addis Ababa), Arsi, Aseb*, Asosa, Bale, Borena, Debub Gonder, Debub Shewa, Debub Welo, Dire Dawa*, Ertra (Eritrea)*, Gambela, Gamo Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa, Metekel, Mirab Gojam, Mirab Harerge, Mirab Shewa, Misrak Gojam, Misrak Harerge, Nazaret, Ogaden*, Omo, Semen Gonder, Semen Shewa, Semen Welo, Sidamo, Tigray*, Welega

Dependent areas

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world--at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Revolution Day, 12 September (1974)

Constitution: 12 September 1987

Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common, and customary law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Interim President Meles ZENAWI (since 1 June 1991; Head of Government--Acting Prime Minister Tamrat LAYNE (since 6 June 1991)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim GIRMA Amare; Chancery at 2,134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 234-2,281 or 2,282; US--Charge d'Affaires Robert G. HOUDEK; Embassy at Entoto Street, Addis Ababa (mailing address is P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa; telephone [251] (01) 550,666

Flag descriptionflag of Ethiopia: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors Ethiopia EthiopiaEthiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ethiopia - Economy 1991
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Economy overview: Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less then 10% of agriculture, is state run. Favorable agricultural weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock--cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (FY89 est.), accounts for 13% of GDP

Labor force: 18,000,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $842 million (FY88)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $429 million (f.o.b., FY88)
Commodities: coffee 60%, hides
Partners: US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy, Saudi Arabia

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88)
Commodities: food, fuels, capital goods
Partners: USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1--2.0700 (fixed rate)

Ethiopia - Energy 1991
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ethiopia - Communication 1991
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ethiopia - Military 1991
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, 8.5% of GDP (1988)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ethiopia - Transportation 1991
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 153 total, 111 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 49 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 69,398 GRT/89,457 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Ports and terminals

Ethiopia - Transnational issues 1991
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Disputes international: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden; separatist movement in Eritrea; antigovernment insurgencies in Tigray and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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