Finland 1991Finland

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Finland
Finland 

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Finland - Introduction 1991
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Background: Long ruled by foreign powers, including Sweden and the pre-revolutionary Russian Empire, Finland finally declared independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland fought the USSR twice and then the Germans toward the end of the war. In the following half-century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy. Per capita income has risen to the West European level.


Finland - Geography 1991
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries:
2,628 km total
Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, USSR 1,313 km


Coastline: 1,126 km excluding islands and coastal indentations

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 6 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use

Land use: arable land: 8%; permanent crops: 0%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 76%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: long boundary with USSR; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent


Finland - People 1991
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Population: 4,991,131 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

Nationality: noun--Finn(s; adjective--Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Languages: Finnish 93.5%, Swedish (both official) 6.3%; small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 12 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 80 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Finland - Government 1991
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Finland

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular--laani; Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982; Head of Government--Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991; Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Sea Guard)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at 3,216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,016; telephone (202) 363-2,430; there are Finnish Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York, and Consulates in Chicago and Houston; US--Ambassador John G. WEINMANN; Embassy at Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO New York 9,664; telephone [358] (0) 171,931

Flag descriptionflag of Finland: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) Finland FinlandFinland

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Finland - Economy 1991
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Economy overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure. Its main economic force is the manufacturing sector--principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and some components of manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic commodities. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, leveled off in 1990 and is now in a recession facing negative growth in 1991. The clearing account system between Finland and the Soviet Union in the postwar period--mainly Soviet oil and gas for Finnish manufactured goods--had kept Finland isolated from world recessions; the system, however, was dismantled on 1 January 1991 in favor of hard currency trade. As a result, Finland must increase its competitiveness in certain sectors, for example, textiles, foodstuffs, paper, and metals, and has already begun to shift trade westward. Finland, as a member of EFTA, is negotiating a European Economic Area arrangement with the EC which would allow for free movement of capital, goods, services, and labor within the organization.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 8% of GNP (including forestry; livestock production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops--cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of food and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Industries: metal manufacturing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: - 3.0% (1991 est.), accounts for 28% of GDP

Labor force: 2,470,000; services 38.2%, mining and manufacturing 22.7%, commerce 14.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, construction 8.0%, transportation and communications 7.2% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $35.1 billion; expenditures $33.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.4 billion (1990)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $23.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
Partners: EC 44.0% (UK 12.0%, FRG 10.8%), USSR 14.5%, Sweden 14.3%, US 6.4%

Imports: $24.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder grains
Partners: EC 44.5% (FRG 17.3%, UK 6.6%), Sweden 13.6%, USSR 11.5%, US 6.3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.3 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1--3.6421 (January 1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987), 5.0695 (1986), 6.1979 (1985)


Finland - Energy 1991
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Finland - Communication 1991
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Finland - Military 1991
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $1.1 billion, 1.5% of GDP (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Finland - Transportation 1991
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 160 total, 157 usable; 57 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas, 580 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Merchant marine: 83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 807,020 GRT/831,774 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 10 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 8 bulk

Ports and terminals


Finland - Transnational issues 1991
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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