Germany 1991Germany

 Germany | | | | | |
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Sightseeing Pass

Germany - Introduction 1991
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Background: Germany_first united in 1871_suffered defeats in successive world wars and was occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the beginning of the Cold War and increasing tension between the US and Soviet Union, two German states were formed in 1949:the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The newly democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EU and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War cleared the path for the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and German re-unification in 1990. Germany has expended considerable funds; roughly $100 billion a year; in subsequent years working to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards, with mixed results. Unemployment which in the east is nearly double that in the west; has grown over the last several years, primarily as a result of structural problems like an inflexible labor market.

Germany - Geography 1991
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
3,790 km total
Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czechoslovakia 815 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea--3 nm (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); remainder of Baltic Sea--12 nm

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south


Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel
Land use

Land use: arable land: 34%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 16%; forest and woodland 30%; other 19%; includes irrigated 1%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

Germany - People 1991
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Population: 79,548,498 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

Nationality: noun--German(s; adjective--German

Ethnic groups: primarily German; small Danish and Slavic minorities

Languages: German

Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 11 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air and water pollution; ground water, lakes, and air quality in eastern Germany are especially bad; significant deforestation in the eastern mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Germany - Government 1991
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Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Berlin; note--the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years with Bonn retaining many administrative functions

Administrative divisions: 16 states (lander, singular--land; Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification; divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

National holiday: 3 October 1990, German Unity Day

Constitution: 23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984; Head of Government--Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Border Police

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Jeurgen RUHFUS; Chancery at 4,645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20,007; telephone (202) 298-4,000; there are German Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York, and Consulates in Miami and New Orleans; US--Ambassador-designate Robert M. KIMMITT; Embassy at Deichmanns Avenue, 5,300 Bonn 2 (mailing address is APO New York 9,080; telephone [49] (228) 3,391; there is a US Branch Office in Berlin and US Consulates General in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart

Flag descriptionflag of Germany: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow Germany GermanyGermany

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Germany - Economy 1991
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Economy overview: The newly unified German economy presents a starkly contrasting picture. Western Germany has an advanced market economy and is a leading exporter. It experienced faster-than-projected real growth largely because of demand in eastern Germany for western German goods. Western Germany has a highly urbanized and skilled population which enjoys excellent living standards, abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically
Advanced goods. The region's economy is mature: manufacturing and service industries account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactured products constitute a large proportion of imports. In 1989 manufacturing accounted for 31% of GDP, with other sectors contributing lesser amounts. In recent years, gross fixed investment has accounted for about 21% of GDP. In 1990 GDP in the western region was an estimated $16,300 per capita. In contrast, eastern Germany's obsolete command economy, once dominated by smokestack heavy industries, has been undergoing a wrenching change to a market economy. Industrial production in early 1991 is down 50% from the same period last year, due largely to the slump in domestic demand for eastern German-made goods and the ongoing economic restructuring. The FRG's legal, social welfare, and economic systems have been extended to the east, but economic restructuring--privatizing industry, establishing clear property rights, clarifying responsibility for environmental clean-up, and removing Communist-era holdovers from management--is proceeding slowly so far, deterring outside investors. The region is one of the world's largest producers of low-grade lignite coal, but has few other resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany remains poor; Bonn is still trying to bring statistics for the region in line with West German practices. The most challenging economic problem of a united Germany is the reconstruction of eastern Germany's economy--specifically, finding the right mix of fiscal, regulatory, monetary, and tax policies that will spur investment in the east without derailing western Germany's healthy economy or damaging relations with Western partners. The biggest danger is that soaring unemployment in eastern Germany, which could climb to the 30 to 40% range, could touch off labor disputes or renewed mass relocation to western Germany and erode investor confidence in eastern Germany. Overall economic activity grew an estimated 4.6% in western Germany in 1990, while dropping roughly 15% in eastern Germany. Per capita GDP in the eastern region was approximately $8,700 in 1990.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: West--accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry; diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs, poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987; East--accounts for about 10% of GNP (including fishing and forestry; principal crops--wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987

Industries: West--among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and beverages; East--metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: 36,750,000; industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: West--7.1% (1990; East--1% (1989; 3% (first half, 1990)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: West--revenues $539 billion; expenditures $563 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (1988; East--revenues $147.0 billion; expenditures $153.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: West--$324.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%
Partners: EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 9%, Italy 9%, UK 9%, Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 18%, US 10%, Eastern Europe 4%, OPEC 3% (1987; East--$32.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989)

Commodities: fuels and metals 40%, machinery and transport equipment 29%, chemical products and building materials 9%
Partners: USSR and Eastern Europe 65%, FRG 12.7%, EC 6.0%, US 0.3% (1989): West--$247.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: West--$500 million (June 1988; East--$20.6 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1--1.5100 (January 1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Germany - Energy 1991
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Germany - Communication 1991
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Germany - Military 1991
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $47.1 billion, 4.7% of GDP (1990)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Germany - Transportation 1991
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 655 total, 647 usable; 312 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 86 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 95 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km, refined products 3,946 km, natural gas 97,564 km (1988)



Waterways: West--5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea; East--2,319 km (1988)

Merchant marine: 598 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,029,615 GRT/6,391,875 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 315 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 126 container, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 33 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 6 barge carrier, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 21 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination ore/oil, 14 combination bulk, 15 bulk; note--the German register includes ships of the former East Germany and West Germany; during 1991 the fleet is expected to undergo major restructuring as now-surplus ships are sold off

Ports and terminals

Germany - Transnational issues 1991
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Disputes international: the boundaries of Germany were set by the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany signed 12 September 1990 in Moscow by the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union; this treaty entered into force on 15 March 1991; a subsequent treaty between Germany and Poland, reaffirming the German-Polish boundary, was signed on 14 November 1990 and is set to be ratified in 1991; the US Government is seeking to settle the property claims of US nationals against the former GDR

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Undercover Tourist

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