Ireland 1991Ireland

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Ireland
Ireland 

Turbopass


Ireland - Introduction 1991
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Background: Growing Irish nationalism resulted in independence from the United Kingdom in 1921, with six largely Protestant northern counties remaining within the UK. After World War II bloody strife between Catholics and Protestants over the status of Northern Ireland cost thousands of lives.


Ireland - Geography 1991
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 360 km with UK

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: no precise definition
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver
Land use

Land use: arable land: 14%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 71%; forest and woodland 5%; other 10%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Ireland - People 1991
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Population: 3,489,165 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.3% (1991)

Nationality: noun--Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.; adjective--Irish

Ethnic groups: Celtic, with English minority

Languages: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard

Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 15 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 98% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ireland - Government 1991
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990; Head of Government--Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since 12 July 1989, the fourth time elected as Prime Minister)

Legislative branch: Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (GARDA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NEA, OECD, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN; Chancery at 2,234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 462-3,939; there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco; US--Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone [353] (1) 688,777

Flag descriptionflag of Ireland: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and has the colors reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red Ireland IrelandIreland

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ireland - Economy 1991
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Economy overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 37% of GDP and about 80% of exports and employs 26% of the labor force. The government has successfully reduced the rate of inflation from double-digit figures in the late 1970s to 3.3% in 1990. In 1987, after years of deficits, the balance of payments was brought into the black. Unemployment, however, is a serious problem. A 1990 unemployment rate of 16.6% placed Ireland along with Spain as the countries with the worst jobless records in Western Europe.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 10% of GNP and 15% of the labor force; principal crops--turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock--meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (1990; accounts for 37% of GDP

Labor force: 1,293,000; services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 26.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.0%, energy and mining 1.9% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 16.6% (1990)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $11.3 billion; expenditures $11.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (1990)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $24.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodities: chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live animals, animal products
Partners: EC 74% (UK 34%, FRG 11%, France 10%), US 8%

Imports: $20.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodities: food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, textiles, clothing
Partners: EC 66% (UK 41%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $16.0 billion (1990)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (5Ir) per US$1--0.5656 (January 1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454 (1986), 0.9384 (1985)


Ireland - Energy 1991
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ireland - Communication 1991
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ireland - Military 1991
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $458 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ireland - Transportation 1991
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Merchant marine: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 138,967 GRT/164,628 DWT; includes 4 short-sea passenger, 31 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 bulk

Ports and terminals


Ireland - Transnational issues 1991
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Disputes international: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Skytours


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