Saudi Arabia 1991Saudi%20Arabia

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Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia 

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Saudi Arabia - Introduction 1991
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Background: In 1902 Abdul al-Aziz Ibn SAUD captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian peninsula. In the 1930s the discovery of oil transformed the country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. A burgeoning population aquifer depletion and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.


Saudi Arabia - Geography 1991
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries:
4,410 km total
Iraq 488 km, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone 198 km, Jordan 742 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 40 km, UAE 586 km, Yemen 1,458 km


Coastline: 2,510 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: not specific
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use

Land use: arable land: 1%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 39%; forest and woodland 1%; other 59%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal


Saudi Arabia - People 1991
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Population: 17,869,558 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991; note--the population figure is based on growth since the last official Saudi census of 1974 that reported a total of 7 million persons and included foreign workers; estimates from other sources may be 15-30% lower

Nationality: noun--Saudi(s; adjective--Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Languages: Arabic

Religions: Muslim 100%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 37 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: 12 migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: no perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing extensive coastal seawater desalination facilities; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 68 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 62% (male 73%, female 48%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Saudi Arabia - Government 1991
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 14 emirates (imarat, singular--imarah; Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: none; governed according to Sharia (Islamic law)

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982; Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Coast Guard, Frontier Force, Special Security Force, Public Security Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador BANDAR Bin Sultan; Chancery at 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,037; telephone (202) 342-3,800; there are Saudi Arabian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, and New York; US--Ambassador Charles W. FREEMAN, Jr.; Embassy at Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh (mailing address is P. O. Box 9,041, Riyadh 11,143, or APO New York 9,038; telephone [966] (1) 488-3,800; there are US Consulates General in Dhahran and Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag descriptionflag of Saudi%20Arabia: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side; green is the traditional color of Islam Saudi Arabia Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Saudi Arabia - Economy 1991
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Economy overview: The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 70% of budget revenues, 33% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, plays a leading role in OPEC, and invests substantial amounts abroad.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; fastest growing economic sector; subsidized by government; products--wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching self-sufficiency in food

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, small steel-rolling mill, construction, fertilizer, plastic

Industrial production growth rate: - 1.1% (1989 est.), accounts for 37% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 4,200,000; about 60% are foreign workers; government 34%, industry and oil 28%, services 22%, and agriculture 16%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $31.5 billion; expenditures $38.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.9 billion (1990)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 85%
Partners: US 22%, Japan 20%, Singapore 7%, France 5%

Imports: $19.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: manufactured goods, transportation equipment, construction materials, processed food products
Partners: UK 17%, US 15%, Japan 12%, FRG 6%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $18.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1--3.7450 (fixed rate since late 1986), 3.7033 (1986), 3.6221 (1985)


Saudi Arabia - Energy 1991
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Saudi Arabia - Communication 1991
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Saudi Arabia - Military 1991
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $13.9 billion, 16.9% of GDP (1990 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Saudi Arabia - Transportation 1991
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 207 total, 188 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways; 13 with runways over 3,659 m; 38 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 103 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: 6,400 km crude oil; 150 km refined products; 2,200 km natural gas, includes 1,600 km of natural gas liquids

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine: 84 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,492,174 GRT/2,436,635 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger, 14 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 container, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5 livestock carrier, 26 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 bulk

Ports and terminals


Saudi Arabia - Transnational issues 1991
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Disputes international: no defined boundaries with Yemen and UAE; shares Neutral Zone with Iraq--in December 1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary agreement that divides the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified before it becomes effective; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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