Yugoslavia 1991Yugoslavia

 Yugoslavia | | | | | |
| | | :  |



Yugoslavia - Geography 1991
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
2,961 km total
Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km, Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania 546 km

Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography; plain in north


Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore, antimony, chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural gas, nickel, uranium
Land use

Land use: arable land: 28%; permanent crops: 3%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and woodland 36%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: controls the most important land routes from central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Yugoslavia geoad2

Yugoslavia - People 1991
top of page

Population: 23,976,040 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

Nationality: noun--Yugoslav(s; adjective--Yugoslav

Ethnic groups: Serb 36.3%, Croat 19.7%, Muslim 8.9%, Slovene 7.8%, Albanian 7.7%, Macedonian 5.9%, Yugoslav 5.4%, Montenegrin 2.5%, Hungarian 1.9%, other 3.9% (1981 census)

Languages: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official; Albanian, Hungarian

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 50%, Roman Catholic 30%, Muslim 9%, Protestant 1%, other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 14 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Yugoslavia - Government 1991
top of page

Country name: conventional long form: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; abbreviated SFRY

Government type: federal republic in form; four of six republics have non-Communist governments

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 6 republics (republike, singular--republika; Bosna i Hercegovina (Bosnia and Hercegovina), Crna Gora (Montenegro), Hrvatska (Croatia), Makedonija (Macedonia), Slovenija (Slovenia), Srbija (Serbia; note--there are two nominally autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine, singular--autonomna pokajina) within Srbija--Kosovo and Vojvodina

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

Constitution: 21 February 1974, amendments to the Constitution have passed the Federal Assembly and are being considered at the republic level

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; a new legal code is being formulated

International law organization participation


Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President of the Presidency Stjepan MESIC from Hrvatska (Croatia), one-year term expires 15 May 1992; Vice President of the Presidency Branko KOSTIC from Crna Gora (Montenegro), one-year term expires 15 May 1992; note--the offices of president and vice president rotate annually among members of the Presidency with the current vice president assuming the presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the longest without filling the position (the current sequence is Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i Hercegovina, Slovenija, and Srbija; Head of Government--President of the Federal Executive Council Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989; Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989; Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL (since 16 March 1989)

Legislative branch: Yugoslav People's Army--Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil Defense

Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS, CCC, CERN (observer), CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OECD (special), PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC; Chancery at 2,410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 462-6,566; there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco; US--Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; mailing address Box 5,070, Belgrade or APO New York 9,213-5,070; telephone [38] (11) 645-655; there is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

Flag descriptionflag of Yugoslavia: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red with a large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the center over all three bands Yugoslavia YugoslaviaYugoslavia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Yugoslavia - Economy 1991
top of page

Economy overview: For 20 years Communist Yugoslavia had been trying to replace the Stalinist command economy with a decentralized semimarket system that features worker self-management councils in all large plants. This hybrid system neared collapse in late 1989 when inflation soared. The government applied shock therapy in 1990 under an IMF standby program that provides tight control over monetary expansion, a freeze on wages, the pegging of the dinar to the deutsche mark, and a partial price freeze on energy, transportation, and communal services. This program brought hyperinflation to a halt and encouraged a rise in foreign investment. Since June 1990, however, inflation has rebounded and threatens to rise further in 1991. Estimated annual inflation for 1990 is 164%. Other huge problems remain rising unemployment, the low quality of industrial output, and striking differences in income between the poorer southern regions and the comparatively well-off northern areas. Even so, political issues far outweigh economic problems in importance.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: diversified, with many small private holdings and large combines; main crops--corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, sunflowers; occasionally a net exporter of corn, tobacco, foodstuffs, live animals

Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, petroleum, chemicals, textiles, wood processing, food processing, pulp and paper, motor vehicles, building materials

Industrial production growth rate: - 10.9% (1990)

Labor force: 9,600,000; agriculture 22%, mining and manufacturing 27%; about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 16% (1990)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Yugoslavia

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodities: raw materials and semimanufactures 50%, consumer goods 31%, capital goods and equipment 19%
Partners: EC 53%, USSR and Eastern Europe 27%, less developed countries 12.9%, US 4.8%, other 2.3%

Imports: $17.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
Commodities: raw materials and semimanufactures 79%, capital goods and equipment 15%, consumer goods 6%
Partners: EC 53.5%, USSR and Eastern Europe 22.8%, less developed countries 15.4%, US 4.6%, other 3.7%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $18.0 billion, medium and long term (December 1990)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Yugoslav dinars (YD) per US$1--13.605 (January 1991), 11.318 (1990), 2.876 (1989), 0.252 (1988), 0.074 (1987), 0.038 (1986), 0.027 (1985; note--as of January 1991 the new dinar is linked to the German deutsche mark at the rate of 9 new dinars per 1 deustche mark

Yugoslavia - Energy 1991
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Yugoslavia - Communication 1991
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Yugoslavia - Military 1991
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 70.85 billion dinars, 4-6% of GDP (1991 est.), note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Yugoslavia

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Yugoslavia - Transportation 1991
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 179 total, 179 usable; 54 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,900 km natural gas; 150 km refined products



Waterways: 2,600 km (1982)

Merchant marine: 277 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,780,095 GRT/6,031,359 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 133 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 19 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier, 9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 75 bulk, 11 combination bulk; note--Yugoslavia owns 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,400 GRT/429,613 DWT under the registry of Liberia, Panama, and Cyprus

Ports and terminals

Yugoslavia - Transnational issues 1991
top of page

Disputes international: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with Bulgaria and Greece

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

World Nomads

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it