Albania 1992Albania

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Albania
Albania 

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Albania - Introduction 1992
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Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with severe unemployment and widespread gangsterism.


Albania - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 28,750 km²
Land: 27,400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 720 km total; Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro; Northern Epirus question with Greece

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel
Land use

Land use: arable land: 21%; permanent crops: 4%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated 1%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Albania - People 1992
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Population: 3,285,224 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Albanian(s; adjective - Albanian

Ethnic groups:
Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)


Languages: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek

Religions:
all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice; estimates of religious affiliation - Muslim 70%, Greek
Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 23 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast
Current issues note:
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can read and write (1955)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Albania - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Albania

Government type: nascent democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions:
26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Kore,
Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec,
Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore


Dependent areas

Independence:
28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire); People's Socialist
Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946


National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for adoption in 1992

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18
People's Assembly: last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2

Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime ministers of the Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim (30 April 1991) Sazan Hyda BEJO; chancery (temporary) at 320 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10,021; telephone (212) 249-2,059
US: Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2,921, Tirane (mailing address is APO AE 9,624); telephone 355-42-32,875; FAX 355-42-32,222

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Albania: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Albania - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%.
For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the principle of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. Albania began fitful economic reforms during 1991, including the liberalization of prices and trade, the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform.
These reform measures were crippled, however, by the widespread civil disorder that accompanied the collapse of the Communist state. Following their overwhelming victory in the 22 March 1991 elections, the new
Democratic government announced a program of shock therapy to stabilize the economy and establish a market economy. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the former Soviet
Union and the US and has joined the IMF and World Bank. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; however, the breakup of cooperative farms in 1991 and general economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign aid to maintain adequate supplies. Available statistics on Albanian economic activity are rudimentary and subject to an especially wide margin of error.

GNP: purchasing power equivalent - $2.7 billion, per capita $820; real growth rate --35% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: arable land: per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land: now in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock; severe dislocations suffered in 1991

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate --55% (1991 est.)

Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)
Organized labor:
Independent Trade Union Federation of Albania;
Confederation of Trade Unions

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 40% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $80 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: asphalt, petroleum products, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Partners:
Italy, Yugoslavia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary


Imports: $147 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Partners:
Italy, Yugoslavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland,
Hungary, Bulgaria


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)


Albania - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Albania - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Albania - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GNP (FY90; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Albania - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface runways; more than 5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1988)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways:
43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake
Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)


Merchant marine:
11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886
GRT/76,449 DWT


Ports and terminals


Albania - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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