Algeria 1992Algeria

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Algeria
Algeria 

Iberia


Algeria - Introduction 1992
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Background: After a century of rule by France Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene crack down on the FIS and postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties.


Algeria - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 2,381,740 km²
Land: 2,381,740 km²
Comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km² in southeastern Algeria; land boundary disputes with Tunisia under discussion

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use

Land use: arable land: 3%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Algeria - People 1992
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Population: 26,666,921 (July 1992), growth rate 2.5% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Algerian(s; adjective - Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 31 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification
Current issues note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 56 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can read and write (1987)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Algeria - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions:
48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia,
Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine,
Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran,
Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda,
Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi
Ouzou, Tlemcen


Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised
February 1989


Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
National People's Assembly:
first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENJEDID resigned 11 January 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in
Algerian history; results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating

President: next election to be held December 1993
Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch:
unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis
Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)


Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID; Chancery at 2,118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 265-2,800
US:
Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich Bachir
El-Ibrahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16,000
Algiers); telephone 213 (2) 601-425 or 255, 186; FAX 213 (2) 603,979; there is a US Consulate in Oran


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Algeria: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Algeria - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: The oil and natural gas sector forms the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, has brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since independence in 1988. The government has promised far-reaching reforms, including privatization of some public- sector companies, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major overhaul of the banking and financial systems, but to date it has made only limited progress.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate 2.5% (1990 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor force; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, and cattle

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate --3% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of
GDP, including petroleum


Labor force: 3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture 24%, government 17%, services 10% (1984)
Organized labor:
16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of
Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum and natural gas 97%
Partners: Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US

Imports: $9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30%
Partners: France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 21.862 (January 1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987)


Algeria - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6,380,000 kW capacity; 16,700 million kWh produced, 640 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Algeria - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Algeria - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $867 million, approximately 1.8% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Algeria - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
141 total, 124 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 32
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179
GRT/1,064,246 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Algeria - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Volotea Air


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