Antigua and Barbuda 1992Antigua%20and%20Barbuda

 Antigua and Barbuda | | | | | |
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Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda 

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Antigua and Barbuda - Introduction 1992
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Background: The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.


Antigua and Barbuda - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 440 km²
Land: 440 km²; includes Redonda
Comparative: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use

Land use: arable land: 18%; permanent crops: 0%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 59%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Antigua and Barbuda - People 1992
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Population: 64,110 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)

Nationality:
noun - Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s); adjective - Antiguan,
Barbudan


Ethnic groups:
almost entirely of black African origin; some of
British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin


Languages: English (official), local dialects

Religions:
Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 18 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues:
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to
October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural harbors

Current issues note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 75 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Antigua and Barbuda - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip


Dependent areas

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
House of Representatives: last held 9 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 15, UPP 1, independent 1

Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet


Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS,
OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS; Chancery at
Suite 2H, 3,400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 362-5,211 or 5,166, 5,122, 5,225; there is an Antiguan Consulate in Miami

US:
the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, and, in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant
SALTER; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's (mailing address is
FPO AA 34,054); telephone (809) 462-3,505 or 3,506; FAX (809) 462-3,516


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Antigua%20and%20Barbuda: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Antigua and Barbuda - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important determinant of economic performance. During the period 1987-90, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%. Tourism makes a direct contribution to GDP of about 13% and also affects growth in other sectors - particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities. Although Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas in the
Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors of the economy, it was hurt in 1991 by a downturn in tourism caused by the Persian Gulf war and the US recession.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $418 million, per capita $6,500 (1989); real growth rate 4.2% (1990 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 3% (1989 est.), accounts for 3% of GDP

Labor force: 30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Organized labor:
Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association (ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000 members;
Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $92.8 million; expenditures $101 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $33.2 million (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
Partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $325.9 million (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)


Antigua and Barbuda - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 52,100 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,482 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Antigua and Barbuda - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Antigua and Barbuda - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY91)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Antigua and Barbuda - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2
with runways less than 1,220 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,891
GRT/552,475 DWT; includes 71 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 12 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction large load carrier, 1 oil tanker, 12 chemical tanker, 2 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Antigua and Barbuda - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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