Botswana 1992Botswana

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Botswana
Botswana 

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Botswana - Introduction 1992
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Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy closely tied to South Africa's is dominated by cattle raising and mining.


Botswana - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 600,370 km²
Land: 585, 370 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
4,013 km; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km,
Zimbabwe 813 km


Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: none

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest

Elevation

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda, ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas
Land use

Land use: urable land 2%; permanent crops: 0%; meadows and pastures 75%; forest and woodland 2%; other 21%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Botswana - People 1992
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Population: 1,292,210 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)

Nationality: noun and ajective - Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%; Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi about 4%; white about 1%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 35 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgazing; desertification
Current issues note: landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 42 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 65 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 4.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Botswana - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Botswana

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions
10 districts:
Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; note - in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named Francistown,
Gaborone, Lobaste Selebi-Pikwe


Dependent areas

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 21
National Assembly:
last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total, 34 elected)
BDP 35, BNF 3

President:
last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - President Quett K. J. MASIRE was reelected by the National
Assembly

Communists: no known Communist organization; Kenneth KOMA of BNF has long history of Communist contacts

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or House of Chiefs and a lower house or National Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU,
SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE;
Chancery at Suite 7M, 3,400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 244-4,990 or 4,991

US:
Ambassador Davie PASSAGE; Embassy at Gaborone (mailing address is P.
O. Box 90, Gaborone); telephone 267 353-982; FAX 267 356-947


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Botswana: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Botswana - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population, but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to over 50% in 1989. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond production remained level in FY91, substantial gains in coal output and manufacturing helped boost the economy
GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $3.6 billion, per capita $2,800; real growth rate 6.3% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for only 3% of DGP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population; must import large share of food needs

Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 16.8% (FY86; accounts for about 57% of GDP, including mining

Labor force: 400,000; 198,500 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1990 est.); 14,600 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1990)
Organized labor: 19 trade unions
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1,935 million; expenditures $1,885 million, including capital expenditures of $658 million (FY93)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1990)
Commodoties: diamonds 80%, copper and nickel 9%, meat 4%, cattle, animal products
Partners: Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products
Partners: Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 2.1683 (March 1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987)


Botswana - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 220,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced 858 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Botswana - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Botswana - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $136.4 million, 4.4% of
GDP (FY92)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Botswana - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
100 total, 87 unable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Botswana - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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