Estonia 1992Estonia

 Estonia | | | | | |
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Estonia - Introduction 1992
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Background: In and out of Swedish and Russian control over the centuries, this little Baltic state was re-incorporated into the USSR after German occupation in World War II. Independence came with the collapse of the USSR in 1991.

Estonia - Geography 1992
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Location: Northeastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 45,100 km²
Land: 43,200 km²; (includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea)
Comparative: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries: 557 km; Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: NA nm
Continental shelf: NA meter depth
Exclusive economic zone: NA nm
Exclusive fishing zone: NA nm
Territorial sea: NA nm
international small border strips along the northern (Narva) and southern (Petseri) sections of eastern border with Russia ceded to
Russia in 1945 by the Estonian SSR

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters

Terrain: marshy, lowlands


Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use

Land use: 22% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 11% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes NA% irrigated; 15% swamps and lakes

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Estonia - People 1992
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Population: 1,607,349 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Estonian(s; adjective - Estonian

Ethnic groups:
Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%,
Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)

Estonian NA% (official), Latvian NA%, Lithuanian NA%, Russian
NA%, other NA%

Religions: Lutheran is primary denomination

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: coastal waters largely polluted

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 74 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

Government type: republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: none - all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction

Dependent areas

Independence: 8 November 1917; occupied by Germany in March 1918 and restored to power in November 1918; annexed by USSR 6 August 1940; declared independence 20 August 1991 and regained independence from USSR 6 September 1991

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: currently rewriting constitution, but readopted the constitution of 1938

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
Congress of Estonia:
last held March 1990 (next to be held NA); note -
Congress of Estonia is a quasi-governmental structure; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (495 total) number of seats by party NA

President: last held NA 1990; (next to be held NA); results - NA
Supreme Council:
last held 18 March 1990; (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (105 total) number of seats by party

Executive branch: prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ernst JAAKSON, Legation of
Estonia, Office of Consulate General, 9 Rockefeller Plaza, Suite 1421, New
York, NY 10,020; telephone (212) 247-1450

US: Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE; Embassy at Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001; telephone 011- 358 (49) 303-182 (cellular); FAX 358 (49) 306-817 (cellular); note - dialing to Baltics still requires use of an international operator unless you use the cellular phone lines

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990; flag is three equal horizontal bands of blue, black, and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Starting in July 1991, under a new law on private ownership, small enterprises, such as retail shops and restaurants, were sold to private owners. The auctioning of large-scale enterprises is now in progress with the proceeds being held in escrow until the prior ownership (that is,
Estonian or the Commonwealth of Independent States) can be established.
Estonia ranks first in per capita consumption among the former Soviet republics. Agriculture is well developed, especially meat production, and provides a surplus for export. Only about one-fifth of the work force is in agriculture. The major share of the work force engages in manufacturing both capital and consumer goods based on raw materials and intermediate products from the other former Soviet republics. These manufactures are of high quality by ex-Soviet standards and are exported to the other republics.
Estonia's mineral resources are limited to major deposits of shale oil (60% of old Soviet total) and phosphorites (400 million tons). Estonia has a large, relatively modern port and produces more than half of its own energy needs at highly polluting shale oil power plants. Like the other 14 successor republics, Estonia is suffering through a difficult transitional period - between a collapsed command economic structure and a still-to-be-built market structure. It has advantages in the transition, not having suffered so long under the Soviet yoke and having better chances of developing profitable ties to the Nordic and West European countries.

GDP: $NA billion, per capita $NA; real growth rate -11% (1992)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: employs 20% of work force; very efficient; net exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables

Industries: accounts for 30% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -9% (1991)

Labor force: 796,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 13%, other 45% (1990)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital expenditures of $NA million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $186 million (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery 30%, food 17%, chemicals 11%, electric power 9%
Russia 50%, other former Soviet republics 30%, Ukraine 15%,
West 5%

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery 45%, oil 13%, chemicals 12%
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Estonia - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3,305,000 kW capacity; 17,200 million kWh produced, 10,865 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA
with runways over 3,659 m; NA
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km



Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine:
65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 386,634
GRT/516,866 DWT; includes 51 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 2 short-sea passenger, 6 bulk

Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and
Southwest Asia to Western Europe


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