Japan 1992Japan

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Japan - Introduction 1992
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Background: While retaining its time-honored culture Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat in World War II Japan recovered to become the second most powerful economy in the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians bureaucrats and business executives.

Japan - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 377,835 km²
374,744 km²; includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto),
Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm (3 nm in international straits - La Perouse or
Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait)

Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by
Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea;
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous


Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use

Land use: arable land: 13%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and woodland 67%; other 18%; includes irrigated 9%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Japan - People 1992
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Population: 124,460,481 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Japanese (singular and plural; adjective - Japanese

Ethnic groups: Japanese 99.4%, other (mostly Korean) 0.6%

Languages: Japanese

Religions: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites so the percentages add to more than 100% - Shinto 95.8%, Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12% (1985)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 10 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
Current issues note: strategic location in northeast Asia

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 77 years male, 82 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Japan - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions:
47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba,
Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo,
Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto,
Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita,
Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi,
Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Dependent areas

Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 20
House of Councillors:
last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held 26 July 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (263 total) LDP 114,
SDPJ 71, CGP 20, JCP 14, other 33

House of Representatives: last held on 18 February 1990 (next to be held by February 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (512 total) LDP 278, SDPJ 137, CGP 46, JCP 16, DSP 13, others 5, independents 6, vacant 11
Communists: about 490,000 registered Communist party members

Executive branch: Emperor, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch:
bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Shugi-in)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC,
COCOM, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA; Chancery at 2,520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 939-6,700; there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage,
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los
Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland (Oregon), and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)

Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome,
Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO AP 96,337-0001); telephone 81 (3) 3,224-5,000; FAX 81 (3) 3,505-1862; there are US Consulates General in Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, and Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Japan: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Japan - Economy 1992
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Economy overview
Governmentindustry cooperation a strong work ethic and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity notably in hightechnology fields. Industry the most important sector of the economy is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Selfsufficent in rice Japan must import 50 of its requirements for other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15 of the global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. A major contributor to overall growth of 4.5% in 1991 was net exports, which cushioned the effect of slower growth in domestic demand. Inflation remains low at 3.3% and is easing due to lower oil prices and a stronger yen. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $80 billion in 1991, which supports extensive investment in foreign assets. The increased crowding of its habitable land area and the aging of its population are two major long-run problems.
GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $2,360.7 billion, per capita $19,000; real growth rate 4.5% (1991)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 11.9 million metric tons in 1988

Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic, textiles, chemicals, automobiles, fishing, telecommunications, machine tools, construction equipment

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 2.1% (1991; accounts for 30% of GDP (mining and manufacturing)

Labor force: 63,330,000; trade and services 54%; manufacturing, mining, and construction 33%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%; government 3% (1988)
Organized labor: about 29% of employed workers; public service 76.4%, transportation and telecommunications 57.9%, mining 48.7%, manufacturing 33.7%, services 18.2%, wholesale, retail, and restaurant 9.3%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.1% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $481 billion; expenditures $531 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $60 billion (FY91)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $314.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: manufactures 97% (including machinery 40%, motor vehicles 18%, consumer electronics 10%)
Partners: Southeast Asia 31%, US 29%, Western Europe 23%, Communist countries 4%, Middle East 3%

Imports: $236.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: manufactures 50%, fossil fuels 21%, foodstuffs and raw materials 25%
Partners: Southeast Asia 25%, US 22%, Western Europe 17%, Middle East 12%, Communist countries 8%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1 - 132.70 (March 1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987)

Japan - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 196,000,000 kW capacity; 823,000 million kWh produced, 6,640 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Japan - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Japan - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $36.7 billion, 0.94% of
GDP (FY92 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Japan - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

163 total, 158 usable; 131 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 31
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 51
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km



Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Merchant marine:
976 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,684,459
GRT/34,683,035 DWT; includes 10 passenger, 40 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger cargo, 89 cargo, 44 container, 36 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 111 refrigerated cargo, 93 vehicle carrier, 227 petroleum tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 40 liquefied gas, 9 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 260 bulk; note - Japan also owns a large flag of convenience fleet, including up to 55% of the total number of ships under the Panamanian flag

Civil air: 360 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Japan - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

World Nomads

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