Johnston Atoll 1992Johnston%20Atoll

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Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll 

Atlas VPN

Johnston Atoll - Introduction 1992
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Background: Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858 but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934 and subsequently the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s and until late in 1992 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction is now complete and cleanup and closure of the facility is progressing.

Johnston Atoll - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 2.8 km²
Land: 2.8 km²
Comparative: about 4.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters


Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)
Land use

Land use: arable land: 0%; permanent crops: 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Johnston Atoll - People 1992
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Population: 1,375 (December 1991); all US government personnel and contractors
Longform name: none (territory of the US)


Ethnic groups



Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate

Death rate

Net migration rate

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: some low-growing vegetation
Current issues note:
strategic location 717 nautical miles west-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and the Marshall Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands;
North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS)

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Johnston Atoll - Government 1992
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Country name

Government type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Defense
Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Administrative divisions

Dependent areas


National holiday


Legal system

International law organization participation



Executive branch

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Johnston%20Atoll: the flag of the US is used

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Johnston Atoll - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products


Industrial production growth rate

Labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance



Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates

Johnston Atoll - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: supplied by the management and operations contractor

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Johnston Atoll - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Johnston Atoll - Military 1992
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Johnston Atoll - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,743 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Johnston Atoll - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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