Moldova 1992Moldova

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Moldova
Moldova 

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Moldova - Introduction 1992
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic.


Moldova - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 33,700 km²
Land: 33,700 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries: 1,389 km; Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes:
potential dispute with Ukraine over former southern
Bessarabian areas; northern Bukovina ceded to Ukraine upon Moldova's incorporation into USSR; internal with ethnic Russians in the Trans-Dnestr and Gagauz Muslims in the South


Climate: mild winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Moldova - People 1992
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Population: 4,458,435 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Moldovan(s; adjective - Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldavian (Moldovan) 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13.0%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jews 1.5%, Bulgarian 2.0%, other 1.0% (1989 figures)

Languages: Romanian; (Moldovan official), Russian

Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist only about 1,000 members, other 1.0%; note - almost all churchgoers are ethnic Moldovan; the
Slavic population are not churchgoers (1991 figures)


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 19 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 35 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 71 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Moldova - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau (Kishinev)

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; now to be divided into 7-9 larger districts at some future point

Dependent areas

Independence:
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union; formerly Soviet
Socialist Republic of Moldova)


National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: formulating a new constitution; old constitution is still in effect but has been heavily amended during the past few years

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and CSCE documents

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
Moldovan Supreme Soviet:
last held 25 February 1990; results - Moldovan
Popular Front 33%, Intermovement 34%, Communist Party 32%; seats - (366 total) Popular Front Club 35; Sovereignty Club 35; Club of Independent
Deputies 25; Agrarian Club 110; Club Bujak 15; Reality Club 25; Soviet
Moldova 80; remaining 41 seats probably belong to Onestr region deputies who usually boycott Moldovan legislative proceedings

President: last held 8 December 1991; results - Mircea SNEGUR won 98.17% of vote

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: Moldovan Supreme Soviet

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (highest civil court in Moldova)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CSCE, UN
Diplomatic representation: Ambassador vacant
US:
Charge Howard Steers; Interim Chancery ;103 Strada Alexei Mateevich,
Kishinev (mailing address is APO AE 9,862); telephone 8-011-7-0422-23-28-94 at Hotel Seabeco in Kishinev


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle carrying a cross in its beak and an olive branch in its claws

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Moldova - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Moldova, the next-to-smallest of the former Soviet republics in area, is the most densely inhabited. Moldova has a little more than 1% of the population, labor force, capital stock, and output of the former Soviet
Union. Living standards have been below average for the European USSR. The country enjoys a favorable climate, and economic development has been primarily based on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Industry accounts for 20% of the labor force, whereas agriculture employs more than one-third. Moldova has no major mineral resources and has depended on the former Soviet republics for coal, oil, gas, steel, most electronic equipment, machine tools, and major consumer durables such as automobiles. Its industrial and agricultural products, in turn, have been exported to the other former Soviet republics. Moldova has freed prices on most goods and has legalized private ownership of property, including agricultural land. Moldova's economic prospects are dimmed by the difficulties of moving toward a market economy and the political problems of redefining ties to the other former Soviet republics and Romania.

GDP: NA; per capita NA; real growth rate - 12% (1991)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Moldova's principal economic activity; products (shown in share of total output of the former Soviet republics): Grain (1.6%), sugarbeets (2.6%), sunflower seed (4.4%), vegetables (4.4%), fruits and berries (9.7%), grapes (20.1%), meat (1.7%), milk (1.4%), and eggs (1.4%)

Industries: key products (with share of total former Soviet output in parentheses where known): agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers (2.7%), washing machines (5.0%), hosiery (2.0%), refined sugar (3.1%), vegetable oil (3.7%), canned food (8.6%), shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate - 7% (1991)

Labor force: 2,095,000; agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985 figures)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $400 million rubles (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals (1991)
Partners: NA

Imports: $1.9 billion rubles (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: oil, gas, coal, steel machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer durables
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Moldova - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3,000,000 kW capacity; 13,000 million kWh produced, 2,806 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Moldova - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Moldova - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Moldova - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: NA

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: NA

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km perennially navigable

Merchant marine: NA
Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Moldova - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


Austrian Airlines


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