Pakistan 1992Pakistan

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Pakistan
Pakistan 

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Pakistan - Introduction 1992
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Background: The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing.


Pakistan - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 803,940 km²
Land: 778,720 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
6,774 km total; Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km,
India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km


Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: boundary with India; border question (Durand line); water sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the Indus

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west


Elevation

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited crude oil, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use

Land use: arable land: 26%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and woodland 4%; other 64%; includes irrigated 19%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Pakistan - People 1992
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Population: 121,664,539 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Pakistani(s; adjective - Pakistani

Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendents)

Languages:
Urdu and English (both official); total spoken languages -
Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi and other 9%; English is lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries, but official policies are promoting its gradual replacement by Urdu


Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi`a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 43 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and
August); deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water logging

Current issues note: controls Khyber Pass and Malakand Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 57 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 35% (male 47%, female 21%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Pakistan - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Government type: parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad
Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh; note - the
Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas


Dependent areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan)

National holiday: Pakistan Day (proclamation of the republic), 23 March (1956)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments, 30 December 1985

Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate
Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 21
President: last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results - Ghulam Ishaq KHAN was elected by Parliament and the four provincial assemblies
Senate:
last held March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1994); seats - (87 total) IJI 57, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, PPP 5, ANP 5,
JWP 4, MQM 3, PNP 2, PKMP 1, JUI 1, independent 1

National Assembly:
last held on 24 October 1990 (next to be held by NA
October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (217 total)
IJI 107, PDA 45, MQM 15, ANP 6, JUI 2, JWP 2, PNP 2, PKMP 1, independents 14, religious minorities 10, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, vacant 1

Communists: the Communist party is officially banned but is allowed to operate openly

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora) consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari`at) Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abida HUSSAIN; Chancery at 2,315
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 939-6,200; there is a Pakistani Consulate General in New York

US:
Ambassador Nicholas PLATT; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5,
Islamabad (mailing address is P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Islamabad or APO AE 9,812-2000); telephone 92 (51) 826,161 through 79; FAX 92 (51) 822,004; there are US Consulates General in Karachi and Lahore and a
Consulate in Peshawar


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Pakistan: green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Pakistan - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual problems of rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits, and heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support a large military establishment and provide for the needs of 4 million Afghan refugees. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in recent years has enabled the country to cope with these problems. Almost all agriculture and small-scale industry is in private hands. In 1990, Pakistan embarked on a sweeping economic liberalization program to boost foreign and domestic private investment and lower foreign aid dependence. The SHARIF government has denationalized several state-owned firms and has attracted some foreign investment. Pakistan likely will have difficulty raising living standards because of its rapidly expanding population. At the current rate of growth, population would double in 25 years.
GNP: exchange rate conversion - $45.4 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 4.8% (FY91 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: 25% of GNP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest contiguous irrigation system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables; live-stock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs; self-sufficient in food grain

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 5.7% (FY91; accounts for almost 20% of GNP

Labor force: 28,900,000; agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing 13%, services 33%; extensive export of labor (1987 est.)
Organized labor: about 10% of industrial work force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (FY91 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.6 billion (FY92 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6.0 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
Commodoties: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice
Partners: EC 31%, Japan 9%, US 13% (FY90)

Imports: $7.9 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
Commodoties: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation, equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
Partners: EC 21%, US 14%, Japan 13% (FY90)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 24.980 (March 1992), 23.801 (1991), 21.707 (1990), 20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988), 17.399 (1987)


Pakistan - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8,500,000 kW capacity; 35,000 million kWh produced, 300 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Pakistan - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Pakistan - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, 6% of GNP (1992 budget)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Pakistan - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
112 total, 104 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 31
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,044 km; petroleum products 885 km (1987)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,227
GRT/495,425 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 petroleum tanker

Civil air: 40 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Pakistan - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade; government eradication efforts on poppy cultivation of limited success


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