Serbia and Montenegro 1992Serbia%20and%20Montenegro

 Serbia and Montenegro | | | | | |
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Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro 

Qatar Airways

Serbia and Montenegro - Introduction 1992
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Background: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by various countries including the U.S.; the U.S. view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation. Recently the Kosovo region has seen disturbances by groups demanding its independence.

Serbia and Montenegro - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 102,350 km²
Land: 102,136 km²: note - Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 km² while Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 km² and a land area of 13,724 km²
slightly larger than Kentucky; note - Serbia is slightly larger than Maine while Montenegro is slightly larger than

Land boundaries: 2,234 km total; Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Hercegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 239 km, Croatia (south) 15 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km; note - the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km; Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Contiguous zone: NA nm
Continental shelf: NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone: NA nm
Exclusive economic zone: NA nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern
Serbia - Muslims seeking autonomy; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and awarded to the former Yugoslavia (Serbia) by Treaty of Trianon in 1920; disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia over Serbian populated areas;
Albanian minority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic

in the north, continental climate - cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall; central portion, continental and
Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast; home of largest lake in former Yugoslavia, Lake Scutari


Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome
Land use

Land use: arable land: 30%; permanent crops: 5%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and woodland 25%; other 20%; includes irrigated 5%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Serbia and Montenegro - People 1992
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Population: 10,642,000 (July 1992), growth rate NA% (1991)

Nationality: noun - Serbian(s) and Montenegrin(s; adjective - Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 100%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: NA births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: NA deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: coastal water pollution from sewage outlets, especially in tourist related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution along Danube from industrial waste dump into the Sava which drains into the Danube; subject to destructive earthquakes
Current issues note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to
Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: Serbia - 70.11 years male, 75.21 years female (1992; Montenegro - 76.33 years male, 82.27 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 89% (male 95%, female 83%) age 10 and over can read and write (1991 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Serbia and Montenegro - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: republic

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina; and 2 automous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Dependent areas

Independence: NA April 1992

National holiday: NA

Constitution: NA April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18
President: NA
last held 4 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (138 total) former Community Party 73,
Radical Party 33, other 32

Communists: NA

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister, deputy prime minister

Legislative branch: Parliament

Judicial branch: NA

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CSCE, UN
Diplomatic representation:
none; US does not recognize Serbia and

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Serbia%20and%20Montenegro: NA

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Serbia and Montenegro - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation has been accompanied by bloody ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. The situation in Serbia and Montenegro remains fluid in view of the extensive political and military strife. This new state faces major economic problems.
First, like the other former Yugoslav republics, Serbia and Montenegro depended on their sister republics for large amounts of foodstuffs, energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide varieties in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the six republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the Communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics.
One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a Communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. A further complication is the major economic sanctions by the leading industrial nations.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $44 billion, per capita $4,200; real growth rate NA% (1990)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit, grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo province produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes, and rice

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone), consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances), electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -20% or greater (1991 est.)

Labor force: 2,640,909; industry, mining 40%, agriculture 5% (1990)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 25-40%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment 29%, manufactured goods 28.5%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 13.5%, chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6%, fuels and lubricants 2%, beverages and tobacco 1%
principally the other former Yugoslav republics; Italy,
Germany, other EC, the former USSR, East European countries, US

Imports: $6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment 26%, fuels and lubricants 18%, manufactured goods 16%, chemicals 12.5%, food and live animals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured items 8%, raw materials, including coking coal for the steel industry, 7%, beverages, tobacco, and edible oils 1.5%
principally the other former Yugoslav republics; the former
USSR, EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East European countries, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 28.230 (December 1991), 15.162 (1990), 15.528 (1989), 0.701 (1988), 0.176 (1987)

Serbia and Montenegro - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8,633,000 kW capacity; 34,600 million kWh produced, 3,496 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Serbia and Montenegro - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Serbia and Montenegro - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Serbia and Montenegro - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: NA

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 415 km, petroleum products 130 km, natural gas 2,110 km



Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine:
43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 866,915
GRT/1,449,094 DWT; includes 19 cargo, 5 container, 16 bulk carriers, 2 combination/ore carrier and 1 passenger ship, under Serbian and Montenegrin flag; note - Montenegro also operates 3 bulk carriers under the flags of
Panama and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Civil air: NA

Ports and terminals

Serbia and Montenegro - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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