Turkey 1992Turkey

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Turkey
Turkey 

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Turkey - Introduction 1992
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Background: the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace


Turkey - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 780,580 km²
Land: 770,760 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
2,627 km total; Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km,
Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km,
Syria 822 km


Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Territorial sea:
6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in Black Sea and
Mediterranean Sea

Disputes:
complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with
Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Elevation

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore
Land use

Land use: arable land: 30%; permanent crops: 4%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and woodland 26%; other 28%; includes irrigated 3%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Turkey - People 1992
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Population: 59,640,143 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Turk(s; adjective - Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 17%, other 3% (est.)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other (Christian and Jews) 0.2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 27 births/1000 populatition (1992)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification
Current issues note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 55 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 81% (male 90%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Turkey - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin,
Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa,
Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan,
Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel,
Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri,
Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa,
Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt,
Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van,
Yozgat, Zonguldak


Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29
October (1923)


Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 21
Grand National Assembly:
last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA
October 1996); results - DYP 27.03%, ANAP 24.01%, SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%, SBP 0.44%, independent 0.14%; seats - (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115,
SHP 86, RP 40, MCP 19, DSP 7, other 5


Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet
Meclisi)


Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA,
OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNRWA, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at 1606 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC; 20,008; telephone (202) 387-3,200; there are
Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

US:
Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard,
Ankara (mailing address is PSC 88, Box 5,000, Ankara, or APO AE 9,823); telephone 90 (4) 126 54 70; FAX 90 (4) 167-0057; there are US Consulates
General in Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Turkey - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The impressive stream of benefits from the economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980 have begun to peter out. Although real growth in per capita GDP averaged 5% annually between 1983 and 1988, recent economic performance has fallen substantially. Moreover, inflation and interest rates remain high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally controlled to a free market economy. Agriculture remains an important economic sector, employing about half of the work force, accounting for 18% of GDP, and contributing 19% to exports. The government has launched a multibillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers to generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned tapping of huge additional quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq. The Turkish economy emerged from the Gulf War of early 1991 in stronger shape than Ankara had expected. Although the negative effects of the crisis were felt primarily in the politically sensitive southeast, aid pledges by the coalition allies of more than $4 billion have helped offset the burden.

GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $198 billion, per capita $3,400; real growth rate 1.5% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 18% of GDP and employs about half of working force; products - tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 10% (1990 est.); accounts for 29% of
GDP


Labor force: 20,700,000; agriculture 49%, services 30%, industry 15%; about 1,500,000 Turks work abroad (1989)
Organized labor: 10% of labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.1% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $41.9 billion; expenditures $49.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.9 billion (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: industrial products (steel, chemicals) 81%; fruits, vegetables, tobacco and meat products 19%
Partners: EC countries 49%, US 7%, Iran 5%

Imports: $22.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, fertilizers, grain
Partners: EC countries 49%, US 7%, Iran 5%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 6,098.4 (March 1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987)


Turkey - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14,400,000 kW capacity; 44,000 million kWh produced, 750 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Turkey - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Turkey - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion, 3-4% of
GDP (1992 budget)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Turkey - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
109 total, 104 usable; 65 with permanent-surface runways; 3
with runways over 3,659 m; 30
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km, petroleum products 2,321 km, natural gas 708 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 1,200 km

Merchant marine:
353 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,056,455
GRT/7,143,096 DWT; includes 7 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 191 cargo, 1 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 37 petroleum tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 10 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 80 bulk, 4 combination bulk

Civil air: 52 major transport aircraft (1991)

Ports and terminals


Turkey - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


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