Ukraine 1992Ukraine

 Ukraine | | | | | |
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Ukraine
Ukraine 

World Nomads


Ukraine - Introduction 1992
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Background: Richly endowed in natural resources Ukraine has been fought over and subjugated for centuries; its 20th-century struggle for liberty is not yet complete. A short-lived independence from Russia (1917-1920) was followed by brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died and World War II in which German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 million more deaths. Although independence was attained in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR true freedom remains elusive as many of the former Soviet elite remain entrenched stalling efforts at economic reform privatization and civic liberties.


Ukraine - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 603,700 km²
Land: 603,700 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
4,558 km total; Belarus 891 km, Czechoslovakia 90 km,
Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (southwest) 169 km,
Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km


Coastline: 2,782 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: NA nm
Continental shelf: NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone: NA nm
Exclusive economic zone: NA nm
Territorial sea: NA nm
Disputes:
potential border disputes with Moldova and Romania in northern
Bukovina and southern Odessa oblast


Climate:
temperate continental; subtropical only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black
Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south


Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaux, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean peninsula in the extreme south

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulphur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber
Land use

Land use:
56% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; 30% other; includes 3% irrigated


Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Ukraine - People 1992
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Population: 51,940,426 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Ukrainian(s; adjective - Ukrainian

Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%

Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish

Religions:
Ukrainian Autonomous Orthodox, Ukrainian Autocephalous
Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 14 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution, deforestation, radiation contamination around Chernobyl nuclear plant
Current issues note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second largest country in Europe

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 75 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ukraine - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: republic

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)

Administrative divisions:
24 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika); Chernigov, Cherkassy,
Chernovtsy, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankovsk, Khar'kov, Kherson,
Khmel'nitskiy, Kiev, Kirovograd, Krym (Simferopol')*, Lugansk, L'vov,
Nikolayev, Odessa, Poltava, Rovno, Sumy, Ternopol', Vinnitsa, Volyn' (Lutsk), Zakarpat (Uzhgorod), Zaporozh'ye, Zhitomir; note - an oblast usually has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


Dependent areas

Independence: 24 August 1991; 1 December 1991 de facto from USSR; note - formerly the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)

Constitution: currently being drafted

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
President: last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Leonid KRAVCHUK 61.59%, Vyacheslav CHERNOVIL 23.27%, Levko LUKYANENKO 4.49%, Volodymyr GRINEV 4.17%, Iher YUKHNOVSKY 1.74%, Leopold TABURYANSKIY 0.57%
Supreme Council: last held 4 March 1990 (next scheduled for 1995, may be held earlier in late 1992 or 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (NA total) number of seats by party NA
Communists:
Communist Party of Ukraine was banned by decree of the
Supreme Council on 30 August 1991


Executive branch: president, prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council

Judicial branch: being organized

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
CIS, CSCE, CE, ECE, IAEA, IMF, INMARSAT, IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Oleh H. BILORUS; Embassy at 1828 L
Street, NW, Suite 711, Washington, DC 20,036; telephone (202) 296-6,960

US:
Ambassador Roman POPADIUK; Embassy at ;10 Vul. Yuriy Kotsubinskoho,
Kiev (mailing address is APO AE 9,862); telephone (044) 244-7,349; FAX (044) 244-7,350


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Ukraine: two horizontal bars of equal size: azure (sky blue) top half, golden yellow bottom half (represents grainfields under a blue sky)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ukraine - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Because of its size, geographic location, Slavic population, and rich resources, the loss of Ukraine was the final and most bitter blow to the Soviet leaders wishing to preserve some semblance of the old political, military, and economic power of the USSR. After Russia, the
Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union producing more than three times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its well-developed and diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the USSR. In early 1992 the continued wholesale disruption of economic ties and the lack of an institutional structure necessary to formulate and implement economic reforms preclude a near-term recovery of output.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate -10% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: grain, vegetables, meat, milk

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -4.5% (1991)

Labor force: 25,277,000; industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 19%, health, education, and culture 18%, trade and distribution 8%, transport and communication 7%, other 7% (1990)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: not finalized as of May 1992

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.5 billion (1990)
Commodoties: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, grain, meat
Partners: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan

Imports: $16.7 billion (1990)
Commodoties: machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles
Partners: none

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA


Ukraine - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: NA kW capacity; 298,000 million kWh produced, 5,758 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ukraine - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ukraine - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ukraine - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: NA

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: NA

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km perennially navigable

Merchant marine:
338 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,117,595
GRT/5,403,685 DWT; includes 221 cargo, 11 container, 9 barge carriers, 59 bulk cargo, 9 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 24 passenger

Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Ukraine - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption; status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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