Uruguay 1992Uruguay

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Uruguay
Uruguay 

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Uruguay - Introduction 1992
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Background: A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement the Tupamaros launched in the late 1960s led Uruguay's president to agree to military control of his administration in 1973. By the end of the year the rebels had been crushed but the military continued to expand its hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. Uruguay has long had one of South America's highest standards of living; its political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.


Uruguay - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 176,220 km²
Land: 173,620 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes:
short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the
Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)


Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Elevation

Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals
Land use

Land use: arable land: 8%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 78%; forest and woodland 4%; other 10%; includes irrigated 1%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Uruguay - People 1992
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Population: 3,141,533 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Uruguayan(s; adjective - Uruguayan

Ethnic groups: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly) 66%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other 30%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 17 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Uruguay - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Government type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores,
Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera,
Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres


Dependent areas

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Constitution:
27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27
June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980


Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18
President:
last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE
Ibanez (Colorado) 29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%

Chamber of Senators:
last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA
November 1994); results - Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New
Space 7%; seats - (30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2

Chamber of Representatives:
last held NA November 1989 (next to be held
NA November 1994); results - Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New
Space 8%, other 1%; seats - (99 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 50,000

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General) consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camera de Representantes)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLICUDDY; Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20,006; telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, and New
York, and a Consulate in New Orleans

US:
Ambassador Richard C. BROWN; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo (mailing address is APO AA 34,035); telephone 598 (2) 23-60-61 or 48-77-77;
FAX 598 (2) 48-86-11


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Uruguay: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Uruguay - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of the early 1980s. In 1988 real GDP grew by only 0.5% and in 1989 by 1.5%. The recovery was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In 1991, domestic growth improved somewhat over 1990, but various government factors, including concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions, and greater attention to bringing down inflation and reducing the fiscal deficit kept output from expanding rapidly. In a major step toward greater regional economic cooperation, Uruguay joined Brazil,
Argentina, and Paraguay in forming the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur). President LACALLE continues to press ahead with a broad economic reform plan to reduce state intervention in the economy, but he faces strong opposition.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $9.1 billion, per capita $2,935; real growth rate 2.3% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: large areas devoted to livestock grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -1.4% (1990), accounts for almost 25% of GDP

Labor force: 1,355,000 (1991 est.); government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%, commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport, and communications 12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers'
Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%
Partners: Brazil, US, Argentina, Germany

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial chemicals
Partners: Brazil 23%, Argentina 17%, US 10%, EC 27.1% (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1 - 2,732.8 (March 1992), 2,018.8 (1991), 1,171.0 (1990), 605.5 (1989), 359.4 (1988), 226.7 (1987)


Uruguay - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2,065,000 kW capacity; 5,677 million kWh produced, 1,819 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Uruguay - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Uruguay - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $168 million, 2.2% of
GDP (1988)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Uruguay - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
90 total, 83 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,737 GRT/104,143
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum tanker

Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Uruguay - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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