Statistical information Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World
Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World

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Bosnia and Herzegovina - Introduction 1992
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Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife which began in March 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to a "greater Serbia." Since the onset of the conflict, which has driven thousands from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and the Bosnian Croats have asserted control of large areas formerly under the control of the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The UN and the EU are trying to mediate a plan for peace.


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 51,233 km²
Land: 51,233 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,369 km; Croatia (northwest) 751 km, Croatia (south) 91 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: NA nm
Continental shelf: 20-meter depth
Exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes:
Serbia and Croatia seek to cantonize Bosnia and Herzegovina;
Muslim majority being forced from many areas


Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium, lead, zinc
Land use

Land use: 20% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 36% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes 1% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Bosnia and Herzegovina - People 1992
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Population: 4,364,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

Nationality:
noun - Muslim, Serb, Croat (s); adjective - Muslim,
Serbian, Croatian


Ethnic groups: Muslim 44%, Serb 33%, Croat 17%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Religions: Slavic Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 14.5 births/1000 population (1991)

Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
Current issues note:
Controls large percentage of important land routes from Western
Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 15.2 deaths/1000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1980-82)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 85.5% (male 94.5%, female 76.7%) age 10 and over can read and write (1981 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: NA

Dependent areas

Independence: December 1918; April 1992 from Yugoslavia

National holiday: NA

Constitution: NA

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: at age 16 if employed; universal at age 18

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister

Legislative branch: NA

Judicial branch: NA

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CSCE
Diplomatic representation: NA

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina: NA

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest component in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1992, the newly independent republic was being torn apart by bitter interethnic warfare that has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. The survival of the republic as a political and economic unit is in doubt. Both Serbia and Croatia have imposed various economic blockades and may permanently take over large areas populated by fellow ethnic groups.
These areas contain most of the industry. If a much smaller core Muslim state survives, it will share many Third World problems of poverty, technological backwardness, and dependence on historically soft foreign markets for its primary products. In these circumstances, other Muslim countries might offer assistance.

GDP: $14 billion; real growth rate --37% (1991)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounted for 8.6% of national income in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive

Industries: steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-92)

Labor force: 1,026,254; 2% agriculture, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 28% (February 1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (19_)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2,054 million (1990)
Commodoties: manufactured goods (31%), machinery and transport equipment (20.8%), raw materials (18%), miscellaneous manufactured articles (17.3%), chemicals (9.4%), fuel and lubricants (1.4%), food and live animals (1.2%)
Partners: principally the other former Yugoslav republics

Imports: $1,891 million (1990)
Commodoties: fuels and lubricants (32%), machinery and transport equipment (23.3%), other manufactures (21.3%), chemicals (10%), raw materials (6.7%), food and live animals (5.5%), beverages and tobacco (1.9%)
Partners: principally the other former Yugoslav republics

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14,400 million kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, 3,303 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
2 main, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over 3,659 m; NA
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km, petroleum products NA km, natural gas NA km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km perennially navigable

Merchant marine: NA ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA GRT/NA DWT; includes NA cargo, NA container, NA liquefied gas, NA petroleum tanker
Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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