Statistical information Bulgaria 1992Bulgaria

Map of Bulgaria | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bulgaria in the World
Bulgaria in the World


Bulgaria - Introduction 1992
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Background: A Slavic state, Bulgaria achieved independence in 1908 after 500 years of Ottoman rule. Bulgaria fought on the losing side in both World Wars. After World War II it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. Communist domination ended in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, and Bulgaria began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy. In addition to the problems of structural economic reform, particularly privatization, Bulgaria faces the serious issues of keeping inflation under control and unemployment, combatting corruption, and curbing black-market and mafia-style crime.

Bulgaria - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 110,910 km²
Land: 110,550 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,881 km; Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: Macedonia question with Greece and Macedonia

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south


Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use

Land use: arable land: 34%; permanent crops: 3%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and woodland 35%; other 10%; includes irrigated 11%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Bulgaria - People 1992
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Population: 8,869,161 (July 1992), growth rate --0.5% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Bulgarian(s; adjective - Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Languages: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown

Bulgarian Orthodox 85%; Muslim 13%; Jewish 0.8%; Roman
Catholic 0.5%; Uniate Catholic 0.2%; Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 12 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation; air pollution
Current issues note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 93% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bulgaria - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria

Government type: emerging democracy, diminishing Communist Party influence

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad,
Sofiya, Varna

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universalandcompulsoryatage 18
National Assembly:
last held 13 October 1991; results - BSP 33%, UDF 34%, MRF 7.5%; seats - (240 total) BSP 106, UDF 110, Movement for Rights and
Freedoms 24

President: last held 12 January 1992; second round held 19 January 1992; results - Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian
Communist Party (BCP), 501,793 members; several small Communist parties

Executive branch:
president, chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier), two deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ognyan PISHEV; Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 387-7,969
Ambassador Hugh Kenneth HILL; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski
Boulevard, Sofia (mailing address is APO AE 9,213-5,740); telephone 359 (2) 88-48-01 through 05; Embassy has no FAX machine

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Bulgaria:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first
Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bulgaria - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the 2% annual level in the 1980s. By 1990, Sofia's foreign debt had skyrocketed to over $10 billion - giving a debt-service ratio of more than 40% of hard currency earnings and leading the regime to declare a moratorium on its hard currency payments. The post-Communist government faces major problems of renovating an aging industrial plant; coping with worsening energy, food, and consumer goods shortages; keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments; investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric power from nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and motivating workers, in part by giving them a share in the earnings of their enterprises. Bulgaria's new government, led by Prime
Minister Filip Dimitrov, is strongly committed to economic reform. The previous government, even though dominated by former Communists, had taken the first steps toward dismantling the central planning system, bringing the economy back into balance, and reducing inflationary pressures. The program produced some encouraging early results, including eased restrictions on foreign investment, increased support from international financial institutions, and liberalized currency trading. Small entrepreneurs have begun to emerge and some privatization of small enterprises has taken place.
The government has passed bills to privatize large state-owned enterprises and reform the banking system. Negotiations on an association agreement with the EC began in late 1991.

GNP: purchasing power equivalent - $36.4 billion, per capita $4,100; real growth rate --22% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 22% of GNP (1990; climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land: devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate --14.7% (1990; accounts for about 37% of GNP (1990)

Labor force: 4,300,000; industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)
Organized labor:
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Edinstvo (Unity) People's Trade Union (splinter confederation from
KNSB); Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation, legally registered in January 1990

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues NA; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1991)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery and equipment 55.3%; agricultural products 15.0%; manufactured consumer goods 10.0%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals 18.4%; other 1.3% (1990)
former CMEA countries 70.6% (USSR 56.2%, Czechoslovakia 3.9%,
Poland 2.5%); developed countries 13.6% (Germany 2.1%, Greece 1.2%); less developed countries 13.1% (Libya 5.8%, Iran 0.5%) (1990)

Imports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 43.7%; machinery and equipment 45.2%; manufactured consumer goods 6.7%; agricultural products 3.8%; other 0.6%
Partners: former CMEA countries 70.9% (former USSR 52.7%, Poland 4.1%; developed countries 20.2% (Germany 5.0%, Austria 2.1%; less developed countries 7.2% (Libya 2.0%, Iran 0.7%)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 17.18 (1 January 1992), 16.13 (March 1991), 0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987; note - floating exchange rate since February 1991

Bulgaria - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 5,040 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bulgaria - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bulgaria - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - 4.413 billion leva, 4.4% of GNP (1991; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bulgaria - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface runways; 20
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1986)



Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Merchant marine:
110 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,234,657
GRT/1,847,759 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 30 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 15 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 48 bulk; Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000
GRT or over) totaling 8,717 DWT operating under Liberian registry

Civil air: 86 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Bulgaria - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route


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