Statistical information Chad 1992Chad

Map of Chad | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Chad in the World
Chad in the World


Chad - Introduction 1992
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Background: After enduring decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, Chad got started toward a more stable state with the seizure of the government in early December 1990 by former northern guerrilla leader Idress DEBY. His transitional government eventually suppressed armed rebellion in all quarters of the country.

Chad - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1,284,000 km²
Land: 1,259,200 km²
Comparative: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries: 5,968 km; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km² Aozou Strip in the far north; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south


Natural resources: crude oil (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use

Land use: arable land: 2%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 36%; forest and woodland 11%; other 51%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Chad - People 1992
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Population: 5,238,908 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Chadian(s; adjective - Chadian

Ethnic groups:
some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are
Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba) in the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara,
Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom 1,000 are French

Languages: French and Arabic (official; Sara and Sango in south; more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

Religions: Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism 23%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 42 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts
Current issues note:
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 136 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 5.3 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

30% (male 42%, female 18%) age 15 and over can read and write
French or Arabic (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Chad - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Chad

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera,
Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari,
Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: 11 August

22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional
National Charter 1 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age NA
National Consultative Council:
last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3
December 1990

last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results -
President Hissein HABRE was elected without opposition; note - the government of then President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990, and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3 December 1990; national conference scheduled for mid-1992 and election to follow in 1993

no front organizations or underground party; probably a few
Communists and some sympathizers

Executive branch: president, Council of State (cabinet)

Legislative branch:
the National Consultative Council (Conseil National
Consultatif) was disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional
Council of the Republic; 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ACHEIKH ibn Oumar; Chancery at 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009; telephone (202) 462-4,009
Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN; Embassy at Avenue Felix Eboue,
N'Djamena (mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena); telephone 235 (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 51-62-11; FAX 235 51-33-72

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Chad: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Chad - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural resources potential make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is burdened by the ravages of civil war, conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level, with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports. Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing. Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the
Doba basin in the south. Since coming to power in December 1990, the Deby government has experienced a year of economic chaos.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $1.0 billion, per capita $205; real growth rate 0.9% (1989 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.), accounts for nearly 15% of GDP

Labor force: NA; agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and fishing) 85%
Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: entirely funded by outside donors

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $174 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
Partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Imports: $264 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
Partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January 1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987)

Chad - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 40,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Chad - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Chad - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $39 million, 4.3% of
GDP (1988)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Chad - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

71 total, 55 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 4
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 2,000 km navigable
Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Chad - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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