Statistical information Colombia 1992Colombia

Map of Colombia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Colombia in the World
Colombia in the World

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Colombia - Introduction 1992
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Background: Colombia gained its independence from Spain in 1819. Earlier than most countries in the area, it established traditions of civilian government with regular, free elections. In recent years, however, assassinations, widespread guerrilla activities, and drug trafficking have severely disrupted normal public and private activities.


Colombia - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 1,138,910 km²
Land:
1,038,700 km²; includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay,
Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: 7,408 km; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km; Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of
Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank


Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use

Land use: arable land: 4%; permanent crops: 2%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and woodland 49%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Colombia - People 1992
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Population: 34,296,941 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Colombian(s; adjective - Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 24 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts
Current issues note:
only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific
Ocean and Caribbean Sea


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 87% (male 88%, female 86%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Colombia - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Colombia

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions:
23 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias, singular - comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias, singular - intendencia); Amazonas*, Antioquia,
Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca,
Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira,
Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda,
San Andres y Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca,
Vaupes*, Vichada*; note - there may be a new special district (distrito especial) named Bogota; the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997


Dependent areas

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
President:
last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National
Salvation Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%

Senate: last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal 58, Conservative 22, AD/M-19 9, MSN 5, UP 1, others 7
House of Representatives:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held
March 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total)
Liberal 87, Conservative 31, AD/M-19 13, MSN 10, UP 3, other 17

Communists:
18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth
Organization (JUCO)


Executive branch: president, presidential designate, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a nationally elected lower chamber or House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra; Chancery at 2,118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 387-8,338; there are Colombian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in
Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa

US:
Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY; Embassy at Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota (mailing address is P. O. Box A. A. 3,831, Bogota or APO AA 34,038); telephone 57 (1) 285-1300 or 1688; FAX 571 288-5,687; there is a US Consulate in
Barranquilla


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Colombia:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center


National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Colombia - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries over the past four years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices - Colombia's major export. The collapse of the International
Coffee Agreement in the summer of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, and drug-related violence have dampened growth, but significant economic reforms are likely to facilitate a resurgent economy in the medium term. These reforms center on fiscal restraint, trade liberalization, and privatization of state utilities and commercial banks.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $45 billion, per capita $1,300; real growth rate 3.7% (1990 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: growth rate 3% (1991 est.) accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 1% (1991 est.); accounts for 21% of
GDP


Labor force: 12,000,000 (1990); services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)
Organized labor:
984,000 members (1989), about 8.2% of labor force; the
Communist-backed Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest labor organization, with about 725,000 members (including all affiliate unions)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.5% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93 billion, capital expenditures $1.03 billion (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: petroleum (19%), coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
Partners: US 40%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%

Imports: $6.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, paper products
Partners: US 36%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 711.88 (January 1992), 633.08 (1991), 550.00 (1990), 435.00 (1989), 336.00 (1988), 242.61 (1987)


Colombia - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9,624,000 kW capacity; 38,856 million kWh produced, 1,150 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Colombia - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Colombia - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $624 million, 1.4% of
GDP (1991)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Colombia - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
1,167 total, 1,023 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 8
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 191
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Merchant marine:
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,794
GRT/443,369 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 3 petroleum tanker, 8 bulk, 10 container; note - in addition, 2 naval tankers are sometimes used commercially

Civil air: 83 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Colombia - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, coca, and opium; about 37,500 hectares of coca under cultivation; major supplier of cocaine to the
US and other international drug markets



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