Statistical information Cuba 1992Cuba

Map of Cuba | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Cuba in the World
Cuba in the World


Cuba - Introduction 1992
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Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959, and his guiding vision has defined Cuba's Communist revolution while his iron will has held the country together for more than four decades. CASTRO brought Cuba onto the world stage by inviting Soviet support in the 1960s, inciting revolutionary movements throughout Latin America and Africa in the 1970s, and sending his army to fight in Angola in the 1980s. At home, Havana provided Cubans with high levels of healthcare, education, and social security while suppressing the Roman Catholic Church and arresting political dissidents. The withdrawal of former-Soviet subsidies, worth $4billion-$6 billion per year, in 1990, cause severe economic hardship for Cuba.

Cuba - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 110,860 km²
Land: 110,860 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: 29.1 km; US Naval Base at Guantanamo 29.1 km

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast


Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica
Land use

Land use: arable land: 23%; permanent crops: 6%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Cuba - People 1992
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Population: 10,846,821 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Cuban(s; adjective - Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 17 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: averages one hurricane every other year
Current issues note: largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Cuba - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cuba

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti
Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system:
based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of
Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 16
National Assembly of the People's Power: last held December 1986 (next to be held before December 1992); results - PCC is the only party; seats - (510 total) indirectly elected
Communists: about 600,000 full and candidate members

Executive branch:
president of the Council of State, first vice president of the Council of State, Council of State, president of the
Council of Ministers, first vice president of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of the People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular)

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,

Diplomatic representation:
none; protecting power in the US is
Switzerland - Cuban Interests Section; position vacant since March 1992; 2,630 and 2,639 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009; telephone (202) 797-8,518 or 8,519, 8,520, 8,609, 8,610

protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy; Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L Y M, Vedado
Seccion, Havana (mailing address is USINT, Swiss Embassy, Havana, Calzada
Entre L Y M, Vedado); telephone 32-0051, 32-0543

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Cuba: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Cuba - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned, is highly dependent on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar provided about two-thirds of export revenues in 1991, and over half was exported to the former Soviet republics. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies that have deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished farmers' informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied goods and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 5% largely as a result of declining trade with the former Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe. Recently the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist facilities and in industrial plants idled by falling imports from the former Soviet Union. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and nickel. The annual Soviet subsidy dropped from $4 billion in 1990 to about $1 billion in 1991 because of a lower price paid for Cuban sugar and a sharp decline in Soviet exports to Cuba. The former Soviet republics have indicated they will no longer extend aid to Cuba beginning in 1992.
Instead of highly subsidized trade, Cuba has been shifting to trade at market prices in convertible currencies. Because of increasingly severe shortages of fuels, industrial raw materials, and spare parts, aggregate output dropped by one-fifth in 1991.

GNP: $17 billion, per capita $1,580; real growth rate -20% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry; key commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)

Industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 0%; accounts for 45% of GDP (1989)

Labor force: 3,578,800 in state sector; services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June 1990); economically active population 4,620,800 (1988)
Organized labor: Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor federation approved by government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an umbrella organization composed of 17 member unions
Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: sugar, nickel, medical products, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee
Partners: former USSR 63%, China 6%, Canada 4%, Japan 4% (1991 est.)

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum, capital goods, industrial raw materials, food
former USSR 47%, Spain 8%, China 6%, Argentina 5%, Italy 4%,
Mexico 3% (1991 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (linked to the US dollar)

Cuba - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3,889,000 kW capacity; 16,272 million kWh produced, 1,516 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Cuba - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Cuba - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $1.2-1.4 billion, 6% of
GNP (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Cuba - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

189 total, 167 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways; 3
with runways over 3,659 m; 12
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 240 km

Merchant marine:
77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 537,464
GRT/755,824 DWT; includes 46 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 cargo/training, 11 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 4 bulk; note - Cuba beneficially owns an additional 45 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 574,047 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta

Civil air: 88 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Cuba - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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