Statistical information Egypt 1992Egypt

Map of Egypt | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Egypt in the World
Egypt in the World

Economy Bookings


Egypt - Introduction 1992
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Background: One of the four great ancient civilizations, Egypt, ruled by powerful pharaohs, bequeathed to Western civilization numerous advances in technology, science, and the arts. For the last two millennia, however, Egypt has served a series of foreign masters_Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, and the British. Formal independence came in 1922, and the remnants of British control ended after World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1981 altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population will stress Egyptian society and resources as it enters the new millenium.


Egypt - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 1,001,450 km²
Land: 995,450 km²
Comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,689 km; Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: undefined
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: Administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use

Land use: arable land: 3%; permanent crops: 2%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 95%; includes irrigated 5%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Egypt - People 1992
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Population: 56,368,950 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Egyptian(s; adjective - Egyptian

Ethnic groups:
Eastern Hamitic stock 90%; Greek, Italian,
Syro-Lebanese 10%


Languages: Arabic (official; English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions:
(official estimate) Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%; Coptic
Christian and other 6%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 33 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; water pollution; desertification
Current issues note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 62 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 4.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Egypt - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazah, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buchayrah, Al Fayyum, Al
Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma`iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al
Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As
Suways, Aswan, Asyu`t, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa`id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash
Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj


Dependent areas

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK; formerly United Arab Republic

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18
Advisory Council: last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats - (258 total, 172 elected) NDP 172
People's Assembly: last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - NDP 78.4%, NPUG 1.4%, independents 18.7%; seats - (437 total, 444 elected) - including NDP 348, NPUG 6, independents 83; note - most opposition parties boycotted
President: last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October 1993); results - President Hosni MUBARAK was reelected
Communists: about 500 party members

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b; note - there is an Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a consultative role

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador El Sayed Abdel Raouf EL REEDY;
Chancery at 2,310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 232-5,400; there are Egyptian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, New
York, and San Francisco

US:
Ambassador Robert PELLETREAU; Embassy at Lazougi Street, Garden
City, Cairo (mailing address is APO AE 9,839); telephone 20 (2) 355-7,371;
FAX 20 (2) 355-7,375; there is a US Consulate General in Alexandria


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Egypt: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Egypt - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third
World economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment.
Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. As part of the 1987 agreement with the IMF, the government agreed to institute a reform program to reduce inflation, promote economic growth, and improve its external position. The reforms have been slow in coming, however, and the economy has been largely stagnant for the past four years. The addition of 1 million people every seven months to
Egypt's population exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the total land area available for agriculture.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $39.2 billion, per capita $720; real growth rate 2% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's sixth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food; livestock - cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 7.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 18% of
GDP


Labor force: 15,000,000 (1989 est.); government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%; agriculture 34%; privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises 20% (1984); shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in Iraq and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)
Organized labor: 2,500,000 (est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $9.4 billion; expenditures $15.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $6 billion (FY90 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Partners: EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan

Imports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
Partners: EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.3310 (January 1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171 (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)


Egypt - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 13,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 820 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Egypt - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Egypt - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 6.4% of
GDP (1991)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Egypt - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
92 total, 82 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 44
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 24
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways:
3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez
Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water


Merchant marine:
150 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,019,182
GRT/1,499,880 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 86 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off, 12 petroleum tanker, 15 bulk, 1 container

Civil air: 50 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Egypt - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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