Statistical information El Salvador 1992El%20Salvador

Map of El Salvador | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

El Salvador in the World
El Salvador in the World


El Salvador - Introduction 1992
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Background: El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war which cost the lives of some 75,000 people was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.

El Salvador - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 21,040 km²
Land: 20,720 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: 545 km; Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes: dispute with Honduras over several sections of the land boundary; dispute over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary because of disputed sovereignty of islands

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October; dry season (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau


Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, crude oil
Land use

Land use: arable land: 27%; permanent crops: 8%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and woodland 6%; other 30%; includes irrigated 5%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


El Salvador - People 1992
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Population: 5,574,279 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Salvadoran(s; adjective - Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 89%, Indian 10%, white 1%

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

Roman Catholic about 75%, with extensive activity by
Protestant groups throughout the country (more than 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador at the end of 1990)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 33 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: The Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Current issues note: smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 75 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 73% (male 76%, female 70%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

El Salvador - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions:
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La
Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente,
Sonsonate, Usulutan

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system:
based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
Legislative Assembly:
last held 10 March 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - ARENA 44.3%, PDC 27.96%, CD 12.16%, PCN 8.99%, MAC 3.23%,
UDN 2.68%; seats - (84 total) ARENA 39, PDC 26, PCN 9, CD 8, UDN 1, MAC 1

President: last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994); results - Alfredo CRISTIANI (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 36.6%, other 9.6%
Business organizations:
National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conservative; Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; National
Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative

FMLN front organizations:
Labor fronts include - National Union of
Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist umbrella front group, leads FMLN front network; National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), best organized of front groups and controlled by FMLN's National Resistance (RN);
Social Security Institute Workers Union (STISSS), one of the most militant fronts, is controlled by FMLN's Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN) and RN; Association of Telecommunications Workers (ASTTEL); Centralized
Union Federation of El Salvador (FUSS); Treasury Ministry Employees (AGEMHA); Nonlabor fronts include - Committee of Mothers and Families of
Political Prisoners, Disappeared Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador (COMADRES); Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission (CDHES); Committee of
Dismissed and Unemployed of El Salvador (CODYDES); General Association of
Salvadoran University Students (AGEUS); National Association of Salvadoran
Educators (ANDES-21 DE JUNIO); Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS), associated with the Popular Forces of Liberation (FPL); Association of National University Educators (ADUES); Salvadoran University Students
Front (FEUS); Christian Committee for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES), an FPL front; The Association for Communal Development in El
Salvador (PADECOES), controlled by the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP);
Confederation of Cooperative Associations of El Salvador (COACES)

Labor organizations:
Federation of Construction and Transport Workers
Unions (FESINCONSTRANS), independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; Unitary Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist; National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), leftist;
Democratic Workers Central (CTD), moderate; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; National Unity of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist;
National Union of Workers and Peasants (UNOC), moderate labor coalition of democratic labor organizations; United Workers Front (FUT)

Leftist political parties:
National Democratic Union (UDN), National
Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and Popular Social Movement (MPSC)

Leftist revolutionary movement:
Farabundo Marti National Liberation
Front (FMLN), leadership body of the insurgency, five factions - Popular
Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN),
People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Salvadoran Communist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL), and Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular Liberation Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARLP)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA; Chancery at 2,308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 265-9,671 through 3,482; there are Salvadoran Consulates General in Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No. 1230,
San Salvador (mailing address is APO AA 34,023); telephone 503 26-7,100; FAX 503 (26) 5,839

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of El%20Salvador:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN
LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

El Salvador - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 40% of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 18% of GDP and 15% of employment. Economic losses because of guerrilla sabotage total more than $2 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large military seriously constrain the government's efforts to provide essential social services. Nevertheless, growth in national output during the period 1990-91 exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $5.5 billion, per capita $1,010; real growth rate 3% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and forestry; coffee most important commercial crop; other products - sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, beverages, petroleum, tobacco products, chemicals, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 2.4% (1990; accounts for 22% of GDP

Labor force: 1,700,000 (1982 est.); agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%; shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)
Organized labor: total labor force 15%; agricultural labor force 10%; urban labor force 7% (1987 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $751 million; expenditures $790 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $580 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: coffee 45%, sugar, cotton, shrimp
Partners: US 49%, Germany 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs, machinery, construction materials, fertilizer
US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, Germany 5%,
Japan 4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.1 (January 1992), floating rate since mid-1990; 5.0000 (fixed rate 1986 to mid-1990)

El Salvador - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 682,000 kW capacity; 1,927 million kWh produced, 356 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

El Salvador - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

El Salvador - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $220 million, 3.6% of
GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

El Salvador - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

107 total, 77 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

El Salvador - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine

Sightseeing Pass

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