Statistical information Hungary 1992Hungary

Map of Hungary | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Hungary in the World
Hungary in the World

Austrian Airlines

Hungary - Introduction 1992
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Background: After World War II Hungary became part of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe, and its government and economy were refashioned on the communist model. Increased nationalist opposition, which culminated in the government's announcement of withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, led to massive military intervention by Moscow and the swift crushing of the revolt. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily moved toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary is developing close political and economic relations with western Europe.

Hungary - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 93,030 km²
Land: 92,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
2,113 km; Austria 366 km, Slovenia 82 km,
Czechoslovakia 676 km, Romania 443 km, Croatia 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Czechoslovakia

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains


Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use

Land use: arable land: 54%; permanent crops: 3%; meadows and pastures 14%; forest and woodland 18%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Hungary - People 1992
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Population: 10,333,327 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.1% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Hungarian(s; adjective - Hungarian

Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 96.6%, Gypsy 5.8%, German 1.6%, Slovak 1.1%,
Southern Slav 0.3%, Romanian 0.2%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20.0%, Lutheran 5.0%, atheist and other 7.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 12 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Current issues note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between
Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and
Mediterranean basin

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 75 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Hungary - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Hungary

Government type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen,
Budapest*, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves,
Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy,
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

Dependent areas

Independence: 1001, unification by King Stephen I

National holiday: October 23 (1956; commemorates the Hungarian uprising

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system:
in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on
Western model

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
President: last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held August 1994); results - President GONCZ elected by popular vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly with a total of 294 votes out of 304 as interim President from 2 May 1990 until elected President
National Assembly:
last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with the second round held 8 April 1990); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) Democratic Forum 162, Free Democrats 90, Independent
Smallholders 45, Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) 33, Young Democrats 22,
Christian Democrats 21, independents or jointly sponsored candidates 13

Communists: fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

Executive branch: president, prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, may be restructured as part of ongoing government overhaul

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Pal TAR; Chancery at 3,910
Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 362-6,730; there is a Hungarian Consulate General in New York

US: Ambassador Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest (mailing address is APO AE 9,213-5,270); telephone 36 (1) 112-6,450; FAX 132-8,934

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Hungary - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Hungary is in the midst of a difficult transition between a command and a market economy. Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable export earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of GDP and 30% of employment. Hungary claims that less than 20% of foreign trade is now with former CEMA countries, while about 70% is with OECD members. Hungary's economic reform programs during the Communist era gave it a head start in creating a market economy and attracting foreign investment. In 1990, Hungary received half of all foreign investment in
Eastern Europe and in 1991 received the largest single share. The growing private sector accounts for one-quarter to one-third of national output according to unofficial estimates. Privatization of state enterprises is progressing, although excessive redtape, bureaucratic oversight, and uncertainties about pricing have slowed the process. Escalating unemployment and high rates of inflation may impede efforts to speed up privatization and budget reform, while Hungary's heavy foreign debt will make the government reluctant to introduce full convertability of the forint before 1993.

GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $60.1 billion, per capita $5,700; real growth rate - 7% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GDP and 19% of employment; highly diversified crop-livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), trucks, buses

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate - 20% (1991 est.)

Labor force: 5.4 million; services, trade, government, and other 43.2%, industry 30.9%, agriculture 18.8%, construction 7.1% (1991)
Organized labor:
45-55% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian
Trade Unions (SZOT) includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the government; independent unions legal; may be as many as 12 small independent unions in operation

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.0% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $12.7 billion; expenditures $13.6 billion (1992 planned)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b. 1991)
Commodoties: capital goods 25.9%, foods 23%, consumer goods 16.5%, fuels 2.4%, other 32.2%
Partners: USSR and Eastern Europe 31.9%, EC 32.2%, EFTA 12% (1990)

Imports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: capital goods 31.6%, fuels 13.8%, manufactured consumer goods 14.6%, agriculture 6%, other 34.0%
Partners: USSR and Eastern Europe 34%, EC 31%, EFTA 15.4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates

Hungary - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6,967,000 kW capacity; 28,376 million kWh produced, 2,750 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Hungary - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Hungary - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - 60.8 billion forints, 1.7% of GNP (1992 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate would produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Hungary - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 3,895 km (1986)



Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Merchant marine: 14 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 85,489 GRT/119,520 DWT
Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Hungary - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route


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