Statistical information Indonesia 1992Indonesia

Map of Indonesia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Indonesia in the World
Indonesia in the World


Indonesia - Introduction 1992
top of page

Background: Indonesia declared its independence in 1945 from the Netherlands, a claim disputed, then recognized by the Dutch in 1949. In 1975 Indonesian troops occupied Portuguese East Timor. Current issues include implementing IMF-mandated reforms (particularly restructuring and recapitalizing the insolvent banking sector), effecting a transition to a popularly elected government, addressing longstanding grievances over the role of the ethnic Chinese business class and charges of cronyism and corruption, alleged human rights violations by the military, the role of the military and religion in politics, and growing pressures for some form of independence or autonomy by Aceh, Irian Jaya, and East Timor.

Indonesia - Geography 1992
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1,919,440 km²
Land: 1,826,440 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 2,602 km; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains


Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas liquids, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use

Land use: arable land: 8%; permanent crops: 3%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and woodland 67%; other 15%; includes irrigated 3%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Indonesia - People 1992
top of page

Population: 195,683,531 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Indonesian(s; adjective - Indonesian

Ethnic groups:
majority of Malay stock comprising Javanese 45.0%,
Sundanese 14.0%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26.0%

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official; English and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%,
Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 25 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation
Current issues note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 70 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 64 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 77% (male 84%, female 68%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Indonesia - Government 1992
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota);
Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa
Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah,
Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur,
Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara,
Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and
Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age
House of Representatives:
last held on 23 April 1987 (next to be held 8
June 1992); results - Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%; seats - (500 total - 400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40

Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966; current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note - the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY; Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036; telephone (202) 775-5,200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in Houston, New York, and
Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San Francisco

US: Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta (mailing address is APO AP 96,520); telephone 62 (21) 360-360; FAX 62 (21) 360-644; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Indonesia - Economy 1992
top of page

Economy overview:
Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GDP growth in 1985-91 averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an important sector, accounting for 23% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force.
The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for 30% of GDP and is based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. In 1991, rapid growth in the money supply prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy, forcing the private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real interest rates remained above 10%, off-shore commercial debt grew, and real
GDP growth dropped slightly from the 7% of 1990.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $122 billion, per capita $630; real growth rate 6.0% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 23% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.), accounts for 30% of GDP

Labor force: 67,000,000; agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport and communications 3% (1985 est.)
Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3%; underemployment 45% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $25.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%
Partners: Japan 40%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, Europe 16% (1990)

Imports: $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%
Partners: Japan 23%, US 13%, EC, Singapore

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 1,998.2 (January 1992), 1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987)

Indonesia - Energy 1992
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Indonesia - Communication 1992
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Indonesia - Military 1992
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 2% of GNP (FY91)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Indonesia - Transportation 1992
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

437 total, 410 usable; 114 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 12
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 64
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)



Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine:
387 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,698,946
GRT/2,560,414 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 231 cargo, 8 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 79 petroleum tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 7 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 25 bulk, 1 passenger

Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Indonesia - Transnational issues 1992
top of page

Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers

Atlas VPN

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it