Statistical information Jamaica 1992Jamaica

Map of Jamaica | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Jamaica in the World
Jamaica in the World

Travelex


Jamaica - Introduction 1992
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Background: Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office and a more conservative government installed.


Jamaica - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 10,990 km²
Land: 10,830 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use

Land use: arable land: 19%; permanent crops: 6%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and woodland 28%; other 29%; includes irrigated 3%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Jamaica - People 1992
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Population: 2,506,701 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Jamaican(s; adjective - Jamaican

Ethnic groups:
African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and
Afro-East Indian 3.0%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2%


Languages: English, Creole

Religions: predominantly Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1%, including some spiritualist cults (1982)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 23 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -8 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November); deforestation; water pollution
Current issues note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Jamaica - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions:
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston,
Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint
Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland


Dependent areas

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction


International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
House of Representatives:
last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by
February 1994); results - PNP 57%, JLP 43%; seats - (60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15


Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet


Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77,
GATT, G-15, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Richard BERNAL; Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20,006; telephone (202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New York
US:
Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life
Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone (809) 929-4,850 through 4,859, FAX (809) 926-6,743


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Jamaica: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Jamaica - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since 1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal prices. The recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and tourism sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was largely complete, and real growth was up about 3% for 1989. In 1991, however, growth dropped to 1.0% as a result of the US recession, lower world bauxite prices, and monetary instability.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $3.6 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 1.0% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force, and 17% of exports; commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, and vegetables; live-stock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products

Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate - 2.0% (1990; accounts for almost 25% of GDP

Labor force: 1,062,100; services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%; unemployed 17.5% (1989)
Organized labor: 24% of labor force (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.1% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $600 million; expenditures $736 million (FY91 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991, projected)
Commodoties: bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas
Partners: US 36%, UK, Canada, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 projected)
Commodoties: petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods, construction goods
Partners: US 48%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 21.946 (January 1992), 12.116 (1991), 7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778 (1986)


Jamaica - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,122,000 kW capacity; 2,520 million kWh produced, 1,012 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Jamaica - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Jamaica - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $20 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Jamaica - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
36 total, 23 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 10 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,619 GRT/16,302
DWT; includes 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Jamaica - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South America to North America; government has an active cannabis eradication program


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