Statistical information Kazakhstan 1992Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World

Kazakhstan - Introduction 1992
top of page

Background: As a republic within the USSR (1920-91), Kazakhstan suffered greatly from Stalinist purges, from environmental damage, and saw the ethnic Russian portion of its population rise to 37% while other non-Kazakhs made up almost 20%. Current issues include the pace of market reform and privatization; fair and free elections and democratic reform; ethnic differences between Russians and Kazakhs; environmental problems; and how to convert the country's abundant energy resources into a better standard of living.

Kazakhstan - Geography 1992
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 2,717,300 km²
Land: 2,669,800 km²
Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 12,012 km; China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: none

Climate: dry continental, about half is desert

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia


Natural resources: petroleum, coal, iron, manganese, chrome, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium, iron
Land use

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Kazakhstan - People 1992
top of page

Population: 17,103,927 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Kazakh(s; adjective - Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups:
Kazakh (Qazaq) 40%, Russian 38%, other Slavs 7%,
Germans 6%, other 9%

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq; official language), Russian

Religions: Muslim 47% Russian Orthodox NA%, Lutheran NA%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 23 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -6.1 migrants/1000 population (1991)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: drying up of Aral Sea is causing increased concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; industrial pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25.9 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 72 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kazakhstan - Government 1992
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan

Government type: republic

Capital: Alma-Ata (Almaty)

Administrative divisions:
19 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast');
Aktyubinsk, Alma-Ata, Atyrau, Chimkent, Dzhambul, Dzhezkazgan, Karaganda,
Kokchetav, Kustanay, Kzyl-Orda, Mangistauz (Aqtau), Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk,
Severo-Kazakhstan (Petropavlovsk), Taldy-Kurgan, Tselinograd, Turgay (Arkalyk), Ural'sk, Vostochno-Kazakhstan (Ust'-Kamenogorsk); note - an oblast has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Dependent areas

16 December 1991; from the Soviet Union (formerly the
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: new postindependence constitution under preparation

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
President: last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (NA total) percent of seats by party NA
Communists: party disbanded 6 September 1992

Executive branch: president with presidential appointed cabinet of ministers

Legislative branch: Supreme Soviet

Judicial branch: NA

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CIS, CSCE, IMF, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador NA; Chancery at NA NW, Washington,
DC 200_; telephone NA; there are NA Consulates General

Ambassador-designate William Courtney; Embassy at Hotel Kazakhstan,
Alma-Ata, (mailing address is APO AE 9,862); telephone 8-011-7-3,272-61-90-56

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: no national flag yet adopted

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kazakhstan - Economy 1992
top of page

Economy overview:
The second-largest in area of the 15 former Soviet republics,
Kazakhstan has vast oil, coal, and agricultural resources. Kazakhstan is highly dependent on trade with Russia, exchanging its natural resources for finished consumer and industrial goods. Kazakhstan now finds itself with serious pollution problems, backward technology, and little experience in foreign markets. The government in 1991 pushed privatization of the economy at a faster pace than Russia's program. The ongoing transitional period - marked by sharp inflation in wages and prices, lower output, lost jobs, and disruption of time-honored channels of supply - has brought considerable social unrest. Kazakhstan lacks the funds, technology, and managerial skills for a quick recovery of output. US firms have been enlisted to increase oil output but face formidable obstacles; for example, oil can now reach Western markets only through pipelines that run across independent (and sometimes unfriendly) former Soviet republics. Finally, the end of monolithic
Communist control has brought ethnic grievances into the open. The 6 million
Russians in the republic, formerly the favored class, now face the hostility of a society dominated by Muslims. Ethnic rivalry will be just one of the formidable obstacles to the creation of a productive, technologically advancing society.

GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capita NA; real growth rate - 7% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: employs 30% of the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool

Industries: extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur) iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 0.7% (1991)

Labor force: 8,267,000 (1989)
Organized labor: official trade unions, independent coal miners' union
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital expenditures of $1.76 billion (1991)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat (1991)
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Imports: $NA million (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery and parts, industrial materials
Partners: Russia and other former Soviet republics

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Kazakhstan - Energy 1992
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 17,900,000 kW capacity; 79,100 million kWh produced, 4,735 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kazakhstan - Communication 1992
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kazakhstan - Military 1992
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kazakhstan - Transportation 1992
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: NA

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA



Waterways: NA km perennially navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 1992
top of page

Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption; status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it