Statistical information Latvia 1992Latvia

Map of Latvia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Latvia in the World
Latvia in the World

Numa


Latvia - Introduction 1992
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Background: Along with most of the other small nations of Europe, Latvia shares a history of invasion by a succession of expansionist nations, e.g., Sweden, Poland, Germany, and Russia. After a brief period of independence between the two World Wars, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940 under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The USSR recaptured Latvia from its German occupiers in 1944. Latvia reestablished its independence in August 1991, a few months prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union.


Latvia - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 64,100 km²
Land: 64,100 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 1,078 km; Belarus 141 km, Estonia 267 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: NA nm
Continental shelf: NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone: NA nm
Exclusive economic zone: NA nm
Territorial sea: NA nm
Disputes:
the Abrene section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet
Socialist Republic to Russia in 1944


Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters

Terrain: low plain

Elevation

Natural resources: minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite
Land use

Land use: 27% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 13% meadows and pastures; 39% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes NA% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Latvia - People 1992
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Population: 2,728,937 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Latvian(s;adjective - Latvian

Ethnic groups:
Latvian 51.8%, Russian 33.8%, Byelorussian 4.5%,
Ukrainian 3.4%, Polish 2.3%, other 4.2%


Languages: Latvian NA% (official), Lithuanian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%

Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 15 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: heightened levels of air and water pollution because of a lack of waste conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga heavily polluted

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 75 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Latvia - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Latvia

Government type: republic

Capital: Riga

Administrative divisions: none - all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction

Dependent areas

Independence:
18 November 1918; annexed by the USSR 21 July 1940, the
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic declared independence 6 September 1991 from USSR


National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November (1918)

Constitution: April 1978, currently rewriting constitution, but readopted the 1922 Constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
President:
last held October 1988 (next to be held NA; note - elected by
Parliament; new elections have not been scheduled; results - percent of vote by party NA

Supreme Council:
last held 18 March 1990 (next to be held NA); results - undetermined; seats - (234 total) Latvian Communist Party 59, Latvian
Democratic Workers Party 31, Social Democratic Party of Latvia 4, Green
Party of Latvia 7, Latvian Farmers Union 7, 126 supported by the Latvia
Popular Front

Congress of Latvia: last held April 1990 (next to be held NA); note - the Congress of Latvia is a quasi-governmental structure; results - percent of vote by party NA%; seats - (231 total) number of seats by party NA

Executive branch: Prime Minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CSCE, IAEA, UN
Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Anatol DINBERGS; Chancery at 4,325 17th St. NW, Washington, DC 20,011; telephone (202) 726-8,213 and 8,214
US: Ambassador Ints SILINS; (mailing address is APO AE 9,862); telephone 358 (49) 306-067 (cellular), (7) (01-32) 325-968/185; FAX 358 (49) 308-326 (cellular), (7) (01-32) 220-502

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Latvia: two horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (middle, narrower than other two bands) and maroon (bottom)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Latvia - Economy 1992
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Economy overview
Latvia is in the process of reforming the centrally planned economy inherited from the former USSR into a market economy. Prices have been freed and privatization of shops and farms has begun. Latvia lacks natural resources aside from its arable land and small forests. Its most valuable economic asset is its work force which is better educated and disciplined than in most of the former Soviet republics. Industrial production is highly diversified with products ranging from agricultural machinery to consumer electronics. One conspicuous vulnerability:
Latvia produces only 10% of its electric power needs. Latvia in the near term must retain key commercial ties to Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine while moving in the long run toward joint ventures, technological support, and trade ties to the West. Because of the efficiency of its mostly individual farms, Latvians enjoy a diet that is higher in meat, vegetables, and dairy products and lower in grain and potatoes than diets in the 12 non-Baltic republics of the
USSR. Good relations with Russia are threatened by animosity between ethnic
Russians (34% of the population) and native Latvians.

GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capital NA; real growth rate - 8% (1991)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: employs 23% of labor force; principally dairy farming and livestock feeding; products - meat, milk, eggs, grain, sugar beets, potatoes, and vegetables; fishing and fish packing

Industries: employs 33.2% of labor force; highly diversified; dependent on imports for energy, raw materials, and intermediate products; produces buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 0% (1991)

Labor force: 1,407,000; industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 16%, other 43% (1990)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $239 million (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodoties: food 14%, railroad cars 13%, chemicals 12%
Partners:
Russia 50%, Ukraine 15%, other former Soviet republics 30%,
West 5%


Imports: $9.0 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodoties: machinery 35%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 9%
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA


Latvia - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,975,000 kW capacity; 6,500 million kWh produced, 2,381 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Latvia - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Latvia - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: NA% of GDP; 3-5% of Latvia's budget (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Latvia - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA
with runways over 3,659 m; NA
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 300 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine:
96 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 917,979
GRT/1,194,666 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 29 refrigerated cargo, 2 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off, 42 petroleum tanker

Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Latvia - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and
Southwest Asia to Western Europe



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