Statistical information Lebanon 1992Lebanon

Map of Lebanon | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Lebanon - Introduction 1992
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Background: Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since the end of the devastating 16-year civil war which began in 1975. Under the Ta'if accord_the blueprint for national reconciliation_the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the political process. Since December 1990, the Lebanese have formed four cabinets and conducted the first legislative election in 20 years. Most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has seized vast quantities of weapons used by the militias during the war and extended central government authority over about one-half of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains most of its weapons. Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia, The Army of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous to its border. The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared security zone and about 20 kilometers north to the strategic town of Jazzin. Syria maintains about 30,000 troops in Lebanon. These troops are based mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment was legitimized by the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if accord. Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far refused to withdraw its troops from Beirut.


Lebanon - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 10,400 km²
Land: 10,230 km²
Comparative: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 454 km; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern
Lebanon since October 1976


Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa` (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Elevation

Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state in a water-deficit region
Land use

Land use: arable land: 21%; permanent crops: 9%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and woodland 8%; other 61%; includes irrigated 7%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Lebanon - People 1992
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Population: 3,439,115 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Lebanese (singular and plural; adjective - Lebanese

Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Languages: Arabic and French (both official; Armenian, English

Religions:
Islam 75%, Christian 25%, Judaism NEGL%; 17 legally recognized groups - 5 Islam (Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Isma`ilite, Shi`a,
Sunni); 11 Christian, consisting of 4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox,
Greek Orthodox, Nestorean, Syriac Orthodox), 6 Catholic (Armenian Catholic,
Caldean, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Roman Catholic, and Syrian Catholic) and the Protestants; 1 Jewish


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 28 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -5 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification
Current issues note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Lebanon - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form:
Republic of Lebanon; note - may be changed to Lebanese
Republic


Government type: republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah; Al Biqa, `Al Janub, Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

Dependent areas

Independence:
22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)


National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education
National Assembly:
elections should be held every four years, but security conditions have prevented elections since May 1972; in June 1991, the Cabinet appointed 40 new deputies to fill vacancies and balance
Christian and Muslim representation; the legislature's mandate expires in 1994

Communists: the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970; members and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note - by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi`a Muslim

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Arabic - Majlis
Alnuwab, French - Assemblee Nationale)


Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador - no ambassador at present;
Mission is headed by Charge; Chancery at 2,560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 939-6,300; there are Lebanese Consulates General in
Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles

US: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER; Embassy at Antelias, Beirut (mailing address is P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut, or Box B, FPO AE 9,836); telephone 961 417,774 or 415,802, 415,803, 402,200, 403,300

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Lebanon: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band
Note:
Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil war between its Christians - then aided by Syrian troops - and its Muslims and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October 1976 between the domestic political groups generally held for about six years, despite occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab Deterrent Force by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's move toward supporting the Lebanese Muslims, and the Palestinians and Israel's growing support for
Lebanese Christians, brought the two sides into rough equilibrium, but no progress was made toward national reconciliation or political reforms - the original cause of the war. Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian presence in Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982.
Israeli forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and mounted a summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of the PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops. Within days of the departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated; his elder brother Amin was elected to succeed him. In the immediate wake of Bashir's death, however, Christian militiamen massacred hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two Beirut camps. This prompted the return of the MNF to ease the security burden on Lebanon's weak Army and security forces. In late March 1984 the last MNF units withdrew. In 1988,
President Gemayel completed his term of office. Because parliamentarians failed to elect a presidential successor, Gemayel appointed then Lebanese
Armed Forces (LAF) Commander Gen. Michel Awn acting president. Lebanese parliamentarians met in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia, in late 1989 and concluded a national reconciliation pact that codified a new power-sharing formula, specifying reduced powers for the Christian president and giving Muslims more authority. Rene MUAWAD was subsequently elected president on 4 November 1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no president and rival Muslim and Christian governments. MUAWAD was assassinated 17 days later, on 22 November; on 24 November, Ilyas Harawi was elected to succeed
MUAWAD. In October 1990, the civil war was apparently brought to a conclusion when Syrian and Lebanese forces ousted renegade Christian General
Awn from his stronghold in East Beirut. Awn had defied the legitimate government and established a separate ministate within East Beirut after being appointed acting Prime Minister by outgoing President Gemayel in 1988.
Awn and his supporters feared Ta'if would diminish Christian power in
Lebanon and increase the influence of Syria. Awn was granted amnesty and allowed to travel in France in August 199l. Since the removal of Awn, the
Lebanese Government has made substantial progress in strengthening the central government, rebuilding government institutions, and extending its authority throughout the nation. The LAF has deployed from Beirut north along the coast road to Tripoli, southeast into the Shuf mountains, and south to Sidon and Tyre. Many militiamen from Christian and Muslim groups have evacuated Beirut for their strongholds in the north, south, and east of the country. Some heavy weapons possessed by the militias have been turned over to the government, or sold outside the country, which has begun a plan to integrate some militiamen into the military and the internal security forces. Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation in
May 1991. Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops, which are deployed in Beirut, its southern suburbs, the Bekaa Valley, and northern
Lebanon. Iran also maintains a small contingent of revolutionary guards in the Bekaa Valley to support Lebanese Islamic fundamentalist groups. Israel withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985, although it still retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north of its border with
Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South Lebanon (ASL), which also occupies the security zone and is Israel's first line of defense against attacks on its northern border. The following description is based on the present constitutional and customary practices of the Lebanese system.


National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Lebanon - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following October 1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the central government to begin restoring control in Beirut, collect taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. The battered economy has also been propped up by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking transactions, manufactured and farm exports, the narcotics trade, and international emergency aid are main sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of 1991, industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed substantial gains. The further rebuilding of the war-ravaged country could provide a major stimulus to the economy in 1992, provided that the political and military situation remains reasonably calm.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $4.8 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate NA (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products - citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in grain

Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate NA%

Labor force: 650,000; industry, commerce, and services 79%, agriculture 11%, government 10% (1985)
Organized labor: 250,000 members (est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 35% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $533 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $700 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products
Partners: Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 5%

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: NA
Partners: Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 879.00 (January 1992), 928.23 (1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987)


Lebanon - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Lebanon - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Lebanon - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $271 million, 8.2% of
GDP (1992 budget)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Lebanon - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
9 total, 8 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none under the direct control of the Lebanese Government


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 72 km (none in operation)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 236,196
GRT/346,760 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 8 livestock carrier, 1 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 3 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Lebanon - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa` is increasing; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, Israel, US, and the Middle
East



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