Statistical information Libya 1992Libya

Map of Libya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Libya in the World

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Libya - Introduction 1992
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Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed e.g. the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992.

Libya - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1,759,540 km²
Land: 1,759,540 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 4,383 km; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions


Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum
Land use

Land use: arable land: 1%; permanent crops: 0%; meadows and pastures 8%; forest and woodland 0%; other 91%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Libya - People 1992
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Population: 4,484,795 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Libyan(s; adjective - Libyan

Ethnic groups:
Berber and Arab 97%; some Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Languages: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 36 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources
Current issues note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 64% (male 75%, female 50%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Libya - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses; in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli Administration divisions

Administrative divisions

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Executive branch:
revolutionary leader, chairman of the General People's
Committee (premier), General People's Committee (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation: none

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Libya: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Libya - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about one-third of GDP. Since 1980, however, the sharp drop in oil prices and the resulting decline in export revenues have adversely affected economic development. In 1988 per capita GDP was the highest in Africa at 5,410, but GDP growth rates have slowed and fluctuate sharply in response to changes in the world oil market. Import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the
Libyan-Egyptian border in December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages.
Austerity budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the government's ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure development projects. Windfall revenues from the hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved the foreign payments position and resulted in a current account surplus for the first time in five years. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 22% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for about 5% of
GDP, it employs about 20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $28.9 billion, per capita $6,800; real growth rate 9% (1990 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: 5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate - 4%; accounts for 22% of GDP (not including oil) (1989)

Labor force: 1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident foreigners; industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%
Organized labor:
National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000 members;
General Union for Oil and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation of Petroleum
Energy and Allied Workers

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $9.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $11 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum, peanuts, hides
Partners: Italy, USSR, Germany, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey

Imports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
Partners: Italy, USSR, Germany, UK, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.2743 (March 1992), 0.2669 (1991), 0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987)

Libya - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4,700,000 kW capacity; 13,700 million kWh produced, 3,100 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Libya - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Libya - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $NA, 11.1% of GNP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Libya - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

133 total, 120 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 9
with runways over 3,659 m; 28
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 46
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquid petroleum gas 256 km)




Merchant marine:
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 684,969
GRT/1,209,084 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off, 10 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Libya - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Economy Bookings

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