Statistical information Macedonia 1992Macedonia

Map of Macedonia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Macedonia in the World
Macedonia in the World

Economy Bookings

Macedonia - Introduction 1992
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Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYROM) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols.

Macedonia - Geography 1992
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Location: Southern Europe, between Serbia and Montenegro and Greece

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time; Zones of the World

Total: total: 25,333 km²; land: 24,856 km²

Land boundaries: total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line


Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulphur, timber
Land use

Land use: permanent crops: 5%; meadows and pastures: 20%; forest and woodland: 30%; other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Macedonia - People 1992
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Population: 2,193,951 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 0.91% (1993 est.)

Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s); adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 67%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, other 6%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%; total population: NA%; male: NA%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 59%, Muslim 26%, Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.91% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 15.91 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 6.79 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: Macedonia suffers from high seismic hazard; air pollution from metallurgical plants; Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central; Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 29.7 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.19 years; male: 71.15 years; ; female: 75.41 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Macedonia - Government 1992
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia; conventional short form: Macedonia; local long form: Republika Makedonija; local short form: Makedonija

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 districts (opcine, singular - opcina) Berovo,; Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci,; Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Negotino, Ohrid,; Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos,; Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole,; Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 November 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers, prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly (Sobranje)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: EBRD, ICAO, IMF, UN, UNCTAD, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; US does not recognize Macedonia
From the us: none; US does not recognize Macedonia

Flag description: 16-point gold sun (Vergino, Sun) centered on a red field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Macedonia - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Macedonia, although the poorest among the six republics of a dissolved Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. It will, however, move down toward a bare subsistence level of life unless economic ties are reforged or enlarged with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and its modern machinery and parts. Continued political turmoil, both internally and in the region as a whole, prevents any swift readjustments of trade patterns and economic programs. Inflation in early 1992 was out of control, the result of fracturing trade links, the decline in economic activity, and general uncertainties about the future status of the country; prices rose 38% in March 1992 alone. In August 1992, Greece, angry at the use of "Macedonia" as the republic's name, imposed a partial blockade for several months. This blockade, combined with the effects of the UN sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro, cost the economy approximately $1 billion in 1992 according to official figures.; Macedonia's geographical isolation, technological backwardness, and potential political instability place it far down the list of countries of interest to; Western investors. Resolution of the dispute with Greece and an internal commitment to economic reform would help to encourage foreign investment over the long run. In the immediate future, the worst scenario for the economy would be the spread of fighting across its borders.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -18% (1991 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: provides 12% of GDP and meets the basic need for food; principal crops are rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; Macedonia is one of the seven legal cultivators of the opium poppy for the world pharmaceutical industry, including some exports to the US; agricultural production is highly labor intensive

Industries: low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by distillation only; produces basic liquid fuels, coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, and ferronickel; light industry produces basic textiles, wood products, and tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -18% (1991 est.)

Labor force: 507,324; by occupation: agriculture 8%, manufacturing and mining 40% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $578 million (1990)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food (rice) and live animals 5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals 4.7%
Partners: principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Greece, Albania

Imports: $1,112 million (1990)
Commodoties: fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and transport equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%, raw materials 10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages and tobacco 3.5%
Partners: other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany,; Bulgaria

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: denar per US$1 - 240 (January 1991)

Macedonia - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,600,000 kw capacity; 6,300 million kWh produced, 2,900 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Macedonia - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Macedonia - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 7 billion denars, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Macedonia - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: total: 17; usable: 17; with permanent-surface runways: 9; with runways over 3,659 m: 0; with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 2; with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 2

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Macedonia - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international: Greece claims republic's name implies territorial claims against Aegean Macedonia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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