Statistical information Madagascar 1992Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Madagascar - Introduction 1992
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992 free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule.


Madagascar - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 587,040 km²
Land: 581,540 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish
Land use

Land use: arable land: 4%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 58%; forest and woodland 26%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Madagascar - People 1992
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Population: 12,596,263 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Malagasy (singular and plural; adjective - Malagasy

Ethnic groups:
basic split between highlanders of predominantly
Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina and related Betsileo) on the one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers, with mixed African,
Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka,
Sakalava), on the other; there are also small French, Indian, Creole, and
Comoran communities; no current, accurate assessment of tribal numbers is available


Languages: French and Malagasy (official)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian about 41%, Muslim 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 46 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Current issues note:
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique
Channel


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 93 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 55 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Madagascar - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Madagascar

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (plural - NA, singular - faritanin'); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina,
Toliary


Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy Republic)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 21 December 1975; note - a new constitution is to be in place before 1993

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
Popular National Assembly: last held on 28 May 1989 (next to be held 1992); results - AREMA 88.2%, MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, other 0.8%; seats - (137 total) AREMA 120, MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1
President:
last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1992); results - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA (MFM/MFT) 20%, Dr.
Jerome Marojama RAZANABAHINY (VONJY) 15%, Monja JAONA (MONIMA) 3%


Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch:
unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale Populaire); note - the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 in preparation for new legislative and presidential elections. In its place, an interim High Authority of State and a Social and
Economic Recovery Council have been established


Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO;
Chancery at 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 265-5,525 or 5,526; there is a Malagasy Consulate General in New York

US:
Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo,
Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620, Antananarivo); telephone 261 (2) 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Madagascar - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world.
Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing about 80% of the labor force, and contributing to more than 70% of total export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1990 it accounted for only 16% of GDP and employed almost 5% of the labor force. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports. After mid-1991, however, output dropped sharply because of protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political reform.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate - 3.8% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries, tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts for 16% of
GDP


Labor force: 4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners - agriculture 26%, domestic service 17%, industry 15%, commerce 14%, construction 11%, services 9%, transportation 6%, other 2%; 51% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor: 4% of labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $390 million; expenditures $525 million, including capital expenditures of $240 million (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $290 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum products
Partners: France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US

Imports: $436 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
Commodoties: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%
Partners: France, Germany, UK, other EC, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,943.4 (March 1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989) , 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987)


Madagascar - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 125,000 kW capacity; 450 million kWh produced, 35 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Madagascar - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Madagascar - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of
GDP (1989 est.)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Madagascar - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
148 total, 103 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 34
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Merchant marine:
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,255 GRT/81,509
DWT; includes 9 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Madagascar - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption


Sesame


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