Statistical information Mali 1992Mali

Map of Mali | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Mali - Introduction 1992
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Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held.


Mali - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 1,240,000 km²
Land: 1,220,000 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 7,243 km; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use

Land use: arable land: 2%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and woodland 7%; other 66%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Mali - People 1992
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Population: 8,641,178 (July 1992), growth rate 2.5% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Malian(s; adjective - Malian

Ethnic groups:
Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole) 50%, Peul 17%,
Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 5%, other 10%


Languages: French (official; Bambara spoken by about 80% of the population; numerous African languages

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 52 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: hot, dust-laden harmattan; haze common during dry seasons; desertification
Current issues note: landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 43 years male, 47 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 32% (male 41%, female 24%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mali - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mali

Government type: republic; an interim government appointed by the national reform conference has organized a series of democratic elections and is scheduled to hand over power to an elected government on 26 March 1992

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao,
Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou


Dependent areas

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French Sudan)

National holiday:
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22
September (1960)


Constitution:
2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981 and March 1985; new constitution presented during national reform conference in August 1991; a constitutional referendum is scheduled for 16
January 1992


Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of
State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 21
National Assembly: last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held NA 1992); results - UDPM was the only party; seats - (82 total) UDPM 82; note - following the military coup of 26 March 1991, President TRAORE was deposed and the UDPM was disbanded; the 25-member CTSP has instituted a multiparty system, and presidential elections are to be held on 26 March 1992 and legislative elections on 9 February 1992 (new National Assembly to have 116 seats)
President: last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held March 1992); results - Gen. Moussa TRAORE was reelected without opposition

Executive branch: Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP) composed of 25 members, predominantly civilian

Legislative branch: Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Mohamed Alhousseyni TOURE;
Chancery at 2,130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 332-2,249 or 939-8,950

US:
Ambassador Herbert D. GELBER; Embassy at Rue Rochester NY and Rue
Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone 223 225,470; FAX 233 22-80-59


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mali: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mali - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 70% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population live as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, per capita $265; real growth rate 2.2% (1990 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, and goats

Industries: small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate, gold, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 19.9% (1989 est.); accounts for 7% of
GDP


Labor force: 2,666,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is umbrella organization for over 13 national unions
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $329 million; expenditures $519 million, including capital expenditures of $178 (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $285 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodoties: livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins
Partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $513 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodoties: textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals
Partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January 1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987)


Mali - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 260,000 kW capacity; 750 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mali - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mali - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $41 million, 2% of GDP (1989)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mali - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
35 total, 27 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable
Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Mali - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Undercover Tourist


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