Statistical information Mexico 1992Mexico

Map of Mexico | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Mexico in the World
Mexico in the World

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Mexico - Introduction 1992
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Background: The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century.

Mexico - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1,972,550 km²
Land: 1,923,040 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,538 km; Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: natural prolongation of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: claims Clipperton Island (French possession)

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert


Natural resources: crude oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use

Land use: arable land: 12%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 39%; forest and woodland 24%; other 24%; includes irrigated 3%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Mexico - People 1992
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Population: 92,380,721 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Mexican(s; adjective - Mexican

Ethnic groups: mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%, other 1%

Languages: Spanish; various Mayan dialects

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 29 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border
Current issues note: strategic location on southern border of US

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 87% (male 90%, female 85%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mexico - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: United Mexican States

Government type: federal republic operating under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions:
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja
California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito
Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico,
Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana
Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory (but not enforced) at age 18
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held midyear 1994); results - PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of PRD) 4%; seats - (500 total) PRI 320, PAN 89, PRD 41, PFCRN 23,
PARM 15, PPS 12

last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1994); results - Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS
Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%, Manuel CLOUTHIER (PAN) 16.81%; other 1.39%; note - several of the smaller parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National Democratic Front (FDN)

Senate: last held on 18 August 1988 (next to be held midyear 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats in full Senate - (64 total) number of seats by party; PRI 61, PRD 2, PAN 1

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG (observer), CARICOM (observer) CCC, CDB, CG, EBRD, ECLAC,
FAO, G-3, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Gustavo PETRICIOLI Iturbide;
Chancery at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,006; telephone (202) 728-1600; there are Mexican Consulates General in Chicago, Dallas,
Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco,
San Antonio, San Diego, and Consulates in Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin,
Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Kansas City (Missouri), Laredo, McAllen (Texas), Miami,
Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Phoenix, Presidio (Texas), Sacramento, St. Louis, St. Paul (Minneapolis), Salt Lake City, San
Bernardino, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Seattle

Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.; Embassy at Paseo de la Reforma 305, 6,500 Mexico, D.F. (mailing address is P. O. Box 3,087, Laredo, TX 78,044-3,087); telephone 52 (5) 211-0042; FAX 52 (5) 511-9,980, 208-3,373; there are US Consulates General in Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tijuana, and Consulates in Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, and
Nuevo Laredo

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mexico: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mexico - Economy 1992
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Economy overview
Mexico's economy is a mixture of stateowned industrial plants notably oil private manufacturing and services and both largescale and traditional agriculture. In the 1980s Mexico experienced severe economic difficulties:
the nation accumulated large external debts as world petroleum prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the domestic food supply; and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to emigrate became more acute.
Growth in national output, however, is recovering, rising from 1.4% in 1988 to 4% in 1990 and again in 1991. The US is Mexico's major trading partner, accounting for two-thirds of its exports and imports. After petroleum, border assembly plants and tourism are the largest earners of foreign exchange. The government, in consultation with international economic agencies, is implementing programs to stabilize the economy and foster growth. In 1991 the government began negotiations with the US and Canada on a free trade agreement.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $289 billion, per capita $3,200; real growth rate 4% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large number of small farms at subsistence level; major food crops - corn, wheat, rice, beans; cash crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, transportation equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 5.5% (1991 est.); accounts for 28% of

Labor force: 26,100,000 (1988); services 31.4%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing 26%, commerce 13.9%, manufacturing 12.8%, construction 9.5%, transportation 4.8%, mining and quarrying 1.3%, electricity 0.3% (1986)
Organized labor: 35% of labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 14-17% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $41.0 billion; expenditures $47.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.3 billion (1990)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $27.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: crude oil, oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines, motor vehicles, cotton, consumer electronics
Partners: US 68%, EC 14%, Japan 6% (1990 est.)

Imports: $36.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: grain, metal manufactures, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment
Partners: US 69%, EC 13%, Japan 6% (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 3,068.5 (January 1992), 3,018.4 (1991) 2,940.9 (January 1991), 2,812.6 (1990), 2,461.3 (1989), 2,273.1 (1988), 1,378.2 (1987)

Mexico - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 26,150,000 kW capacity; 114,277 million kWh produced, 1,270 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mexico - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mexico - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, less than 1% of GDP (1982 budget)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mexico - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

1,815 total, 1,505 usable; 200 with permanent-surface runways; 3
with runways over 3,659 m; 33
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 284
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km



Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Merchant marine:
58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 875,239
GRT/1,301,355 DWT; includes 4 short-sea passenger, 3 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 30 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 1 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 4 container

Civil air: 186 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Mexico - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of active government eradication program; major supplier to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America


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