Statistical information Myanmar 1992Myanmar

Map of Myanmar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Myanmar in the World
Myanmar in the World


Myanmar - Introduction 1992
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Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory the military junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi has been under house arrest since 1989; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.

Myanmar - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 678,500 km²
Land: 657,740 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,876 km; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September; less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands


Natural resources: crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use

Land use: arable land: 15%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and woodland 49%; other 34%; includes irrigated 2%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Myanmar - People 1992
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Population: 42,642,418 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Burmese (singular and plural; adjective - Burmese

Ethnic groups:
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 29 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation
Current issues note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 61 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 81% (male 89%, female 72%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Myanmar - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form:
Union of Burma; note - the local official name is
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw, which has been translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar

Government type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)

Administrative divisions:
7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State,
Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine
State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)

Legal system: martial law in effect throughout most of the country; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
People's Assembly: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats - (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79
Communists: several hundred (est.) in Burma Communist Party (BCP)

Executive branch:
chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration
Council, State Law and Order Restoration Council

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988

Judicial branch: Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September 1988

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador U THAUNG; Chancery at 2,300 S
Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 332-9,044 through 9,046; there is a Burmese Consulate General in New York

Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires
Franklin P. HUDDLE, Jr.; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address is GPO Box 521, AMEMB Box B, APO AP 96,546); telephone 95 (1) 82,055, 82,181; FAX 95 (1) 80,409

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Myanmar: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Myanmar - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP of about 500. The nation has been unable to achieve any substantial improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for 65% of the work force. Burma has been largely isolated from international economic forces and has been trying to encourage foreign investment, so far with little success.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $22.2 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate 5.6% (1991)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry; self-sufficient in food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues; fish catch of 740,000 metric tons (FY90)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts for 10% of

Labor force: 16,036,000; agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY89 est.)
Organized labor:
Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000 members;
Peasants' Asiayone, 7,600,000 members

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.6% in urban areas (FY89 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $7.2 billion; expenditures $9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $6 billion (1991)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $568 million

Imports: $1.16 billion

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0963 (January 1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990), 6.7049 (1989), 6.46 (1988), 6.6535 (1987)

Myanmar - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Myanmar - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Myanmar - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $1.28 billion, FY(91-92)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Myanmar - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

85 total, 82 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km



Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Merchant marine:
71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,036,018
GRT/1,514,121 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 19 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 3 container, 2 petroleum tanker, 6 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 27 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off

Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)

Ports and terminals

Myanmar - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production is on the increase as growers respond to the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs


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