Statistical information Nepal 1992Nepal

Map of Nepal | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Nepal in the World
Nepal in the World

Qatar Airways

Nepal - Introduction 1992
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Background: In 1951 the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.

Nepal - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 140,800 km²
Land: 136,800 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: 2,926 km total; China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: none

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north


Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty; small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use

Land use: arable land: 17%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and woodland 33%; other 37%; includes irrigated 2%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Nepal - People 1992
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Population: 20,086,455 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Nepalese (singular and plural; adjective - Nepalese

Ethnic groups:
Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs,
Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas, as well as many smaller groups

Languages: Nepali (official; 20 languages divided into numerous dialects

Religions: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction between many Hindu (about 90% of population) and Buddhist groups (about 5% of population; Muslims 3%, other 2% (1981)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 38 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Current issues note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 90 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 51 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 26% (male 38%, female 13%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Nepal - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal

Government type: parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions:
14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini,
Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Dependent areas

Independence: 1768, unified by Prithyi Narayan Shah

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
House of Representatives:
last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results - NCP 38%, CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa 5%,
Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%, independents 4%, other 7%; seats - (205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69, UPF 9,
Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 6, NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN (Democratic) 2,
NDP/Thapa 1, independents 3; note - the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gives Nepal a multiparty democracy system for the first time in 32 years

Communists: Communist Party of Nepal (CPN)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
National Council and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Yog Prasad UPADHYAYA; Chancery at 2,131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 667-4,550; there is a Nepalese Consulate General in New York
US: Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH; Embassy at Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu; telephone 977 (1) 411,179 or 412,718, 411,604, 411,613, 413,890; FAX 977 (1) 419,963

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Nepal: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Nepal - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 90% of the population and accounting for 60% of GDP.
Industrial activity is limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for 87% of foreign exchange earnings in FY89. Apart from agricultural land and forests, the only other exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism.
Agricultural production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population growth of 2.6%. Forty percent or more of the population is undernourished partly because of poor distribution. Since May 1991, the government has been encouraging privatization and foreign investment. It has introduced policies to eliminate many business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify domestic and foreign investment procedures. Economic prospects for the 1990s remain poor because the economy starts from such a low base.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, per capita $165; real growth rate 3.5% (FY91)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 60% of GDP and 90% of work force; farm products - rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

Industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette, textile, carpet, cement, and brick production; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 6% (FY91 est.), accounts for 7% of GDP

Labor force: 8,500,000 (1991 est.); agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%; severe lack of skilled labor
Organized labor: Teachers' Union and many other nonofficially recognized unions
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5%; underemployment estimated at 25-40% (1987)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $294.0 million; expenditures $624.0 million, including capital expenditures of $396 (FY92 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $180 million (f.o.b., FY91) but does not include unrecorded border trade with India
Commodoties: clothing, carpets, leather goods, grain
Partners: US, India, Germany, UK

Imports: $545 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
Partners: India, Singapore, Japan, Germany

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 42.7 (January 1992), 37.255 (1991), 29.370 (1990), 27.189 (1989), 23.289 (1988), 21.819 (1987)

Nepal - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 280,000 kW capacity; 540 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Nepal - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Nepal - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 2% of GDP (FY92)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Nepal - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

37 total, 37 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Nepal - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets

Iberostar Hotels

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