Statistical information Panama 1992Panama

Map of Panama | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Panama in the World
Panama in the World


Panama - Introduction 1992
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Background: With US backing Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 September 1977 an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the intervening years. With US help dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989.

Panama - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 78,200 km²
Land: 75,990 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: 555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 200 nm
Disputes: none

tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to
January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills


Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp
Land use

Land use: arable land: 6%; permanent crops: 2%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and woodland 54%; other 23%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Panama - People 1992
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Population: 2,529,902 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Panamanian(s; adjective - Panamanian

Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%, West
Indian 14%, white 10%, Indian 6%

Spanish (official); English as native tongue 14%; many
Panamanians bilingual

Religions: Roman Catholic over 93%, Protestant 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 25 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: dense tropical forest in east and northwest
Current issues note:
strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North
Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 77 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 88% (male 88%, female 88%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Panama - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Panama

Government type: centralized republic

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien,
Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Dependent areas

3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from
Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18
President: last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld (next to be held NA May 1994); results - anti-NORIEGA coalition believed to have won about 75% of the total votes cast
Legislative Assembly: last held on 27 January 1991 (next to be held NA
May 1994; results percent of vote by party NA; seats 67 total progovernment parties: PDC 28, MOLIRENA 16, PA 7, PLA 4 opposition parties: PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1; note - the PDC went into opposition after President Guillermo ENDARA ousted the PDC from the coalition government in April 1991
Communists: People's Party (PdP), mainline Communist party, did not obtain the necessary 3% of the total vote in the 1984 election to retain its legal status; about 3,000 members

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) currently being reorganized

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime FORD; Chancery at 2,862
McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and Consulates has not yet been determined

Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and Calle 38,
Apartado 6,959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E, APO AA 34,002); telephone (507) 27-1777; FAX (507) 27-1964

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Panama: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white with a blue five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Panama - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: GDP expanded by roughly 9.3% in 1991, following growth of 4.6% in 1990 and a 0.4% contraction in 1989. Delay in coming to terms with the international financial institutions on policies to implement structural reform in Panama generated uncertainty in the private sector and tempered the pace of business expansion in 1991. Public investment was limited as the administration kept the fiscal deficit below 3% of GDP. Unemployment and economic reform are the two major issues the government must face in 1992-93.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $5.0 billion, per capita $2,040; real growth rate 9.3% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 12% of GDP (1991 est.), 25% of labor force (1989; crops - bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer of food grain, vegetables

Industries: manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar mills

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 7.2% (1991 est.), accounts for almost 9.4% of GDP

Labor force: 770,472 (1987); government and community services 27.9%; agriculture, hunting, and fishing 26.2%; commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16%; manufacturing and mining 10.5%; construction 5.3%; transportation and communications 5.3%; finance, insurance, and real estate 4.2%; Canal Zone 2.4%; shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor
Organized labor: 17% of labor force (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 17% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $140 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $380 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: bananas 28%, shrimp 14%, sugar 12%, clothing 5%, coffee 4%
Partners: US 44%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1991 est.)

Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: capital goods 13%, crude oil 12%, foodstuffs 10%, consumer goods, chemicals (1990)
US 37%, Japan, EC, Central America and Caribbean, Mexico,
Venezuela (1989 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)

Panama - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,135,000 kW capacity; 3,397 million kWh produced, 1,372 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Panama - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Panama - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $75.5 million, 1.5% of
GDP (1990)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Panama - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

112 total, 102 usable; 39 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 130 km



800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km
Panama Canal

Merchant marine:
3,004 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,314,623
GRT/73,325,176 DWT; includes 20 passenger, 22 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger-cargo, 1,046 cargo, 205 refrigerated cargo, 175 container, 65 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 111 vehicle carrier, 9 livestock carrier, 4 multifunction large-load carrier, 340 petroleum tanker, 177 chemical tanker, 23 combination ore/oil, 101 liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 659 bulk, 35 combination bulk, 1 barge carrier; note - all but 5 are foreign owned and operated; the top 4 foreign owners are Japan 36%, Greece 8%, Hong Kong 8%, and the US 7%; (China owns at least 128 ships, Vietnam 4, former Yugoslavia 4, Cuba 4, Cyprus 5, and the republics of the former USSR 12)

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Panama - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Austrian Airlines

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