Statistical information Peru 1992Peru

Map of Peru | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Peru in the World
Peru in the World


Peru - Introduction 1992
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Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.

Peru - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1,285,220 km²
Land: 1,280,000 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: 6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 200 nm
Disputes: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)


Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash
Land use

Land use: arable land: 3%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 21%; forest and woodland 55%; other 21%; includes irrigated 1%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Peru - People 1992
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Population: 22,767,543 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Peruvian(s; adjective - Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Indian 45%; mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%; white 15%; black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages: Spanish and Quechua (both official), Aymara

Religions: predominantly Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 27 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima
Current issues note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 59 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 67 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 85% (male 92%, female 29%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Peru - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru

Government type: in transition, President FUJIMORI on 5 April 1992 suspended the constitution and dissolved the legislative and judicial branches

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions:
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional);
Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco,
Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto,
Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes,
Ucayali; note - the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990 mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) intended to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 existing departments -
Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin),
Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura),
Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad),
Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from
Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque,
Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government, the regions have yet to assume their responsibilities and at the moment coexist with the departmental structure

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979 Constitution because the Constituent Assembly met in 1979, but the Constitution actually took effect the following year; suspended 5 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
President: last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995); results - Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other 9.55%
Senate: last held on 8 April 1990; dissolved on 5 April 1992; because of suspension of constitutional role, next election not yet scheduled; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (62 total; 60 elected, 2 ex-presidents who are senators for life) FREDEMO 20, APRA 16, Change 90 14,
IU 6 IS 3 FNTC 1; note as a result of the dissolution of FREDEMO and defections and expulsions from the various parties the seats have been reallocated: APRA 17, Change 90 13, AP 8, IU 6, PPC 5, ML 4, IS 3, FNTC 1, independents 4, other 1 (January 1992)
Chamber of Deputies: last held 8 April 1990 dissolved on 5 April 1992; because of suspension of constitutional role, next election not yet scheduled; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (180 total)
FREDEMO 62 APRA 53 Change 90 32 IU 16 IS 4 FNTC 3 other 10; note as a result of the dissolution of FREDEMO and defections and expulsions from the various parties the seats have been reallocated: APRA 53, AP 25, Change 90 25, PPC 23, IU 16, ML 7, FIM 3, IS 4, FNTC 3, independents 15, other 4, and 2 currently nonvoting deputies
Communists: Peruvian Communist Party-Unity (PCP-U), 2,000; other minor
Communist parties leftist guerrilla groups:
Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN; Tupac Amaru
Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and Victor POLAY

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents (vacant as of 19 May 1992), prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados; note - dissolved on 5 April 1992; being reconstituted

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador vacant; Chancery at 1700
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036; telephone (202) 833-9,860 through 9,869); Peruvian Consulates General are located in Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, and San
Juan (Puerto Rico)

Ambassador Anthony C. E. QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of Avenida
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing address is P. O.
Box 1991, Lima 1, or APO AA 34,031); telephone 51 (14) 33-8,000; FAX 51 (14) 316,682

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Peru - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with a large dose of government ownership remaining in mining, energy, and banking. In the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide halted late in the year, and output rose 2.4% in 1991. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, and, although it faces $14 billion in arrears on its external debt, is working to pay some $1.8 billion of these to the IMF and
World Bank by 1993.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $20.6 billion, per capita $920; real growth rate 2.4% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 10% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 1.0% (1991 est.), accounts for almost 24% of GDP

Labor force: 6,800,000 (1986); government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988 est.)
Organized labor: about 40% of salaried workers (1983 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.0%; underemployment 65% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $250 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: copper, fishmeal, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
Partners: EC 28%, US 22%, Japan 13%, Latin America 12%, former USSR 2%

Imports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Partners: US 32%, Latin America 22%, EC 17%, Switzerland 6%, Japan 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/. per US$1 - 0.960 (March 1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990), 2.666 (1989), 0.129 (1988), 0.017 (1987)

Peru - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4,896,000 kW capacity; 15,851 million kWh produced, 709 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Peru - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Peru - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $430 million, 2.4% of
GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Peru - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

221 total, 201 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 23
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 800 km, natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km



Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine:
26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 286,313
GRT/461,233 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum tanker, 7 bulk; note - in addition, 8 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used commercially

Civil air: 44 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Peru - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 121,000 hectares under cultivation; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market


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