Statistical information Poland 1992Poland

Map of Poland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Poland in the World
Poland in the World


Poland - Introduction 1992
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Background: Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite country following the war but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of an independent trade union 'Solidarity' that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. Complete freedom came with the implosion of the USSR in 1991.

Poland - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 312,680 km²
Land: 304,510 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
3,321 km total; Belarus 605 km, Czechoslovakia 1,309 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km,
Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border


Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt
Land use

Land use: arable land: 46%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and woodland 28%; other 12%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Poland - People 1992
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Population: 38,385,617 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Pole(s; adjective - Polish

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Belorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)

Languages: Polish

Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Russian Orthodox,
Protestant, and other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 14 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: plain crossed by a few north flowing, meandering streams; severe air and water pollution in south
Current issues note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman(1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1978)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Poland - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Poland

Government type: democratic state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions:
49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Biaa Podlaska, Biaystok, Bielsko, Bydgoszcz, Chem, Ciechanow,
Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce,
Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, odz, omza, Lublin, Nowy
Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroteka, Pia, Piotrkow, Pock, Poznan, Przemysl,
Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Supsk, Suwaki, Szczecin,
Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Wabrzych, Warszawa, Wocawek, Wrocaw, Zamosc,
Zielona Gora

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1794)

Constitution: Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; developing a democratic Constitution

Legal system:
mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover
Communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
first round held 25 November 1990, second round held 9
December 1990 (next to be held NA November 1995); results - second round
Lech WALESA 74.7%, Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%

last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held no later than NA
October 1995); results -

Solidarity Bloc:
UD 62, ZCHN 9, PC 44, Liberal-Democratic Congress 37,
PL 28, NSZZ 27, SP 4, PCHD 4, RDS 1, Krackow Coalition in Solidarity with the President 1, Piast Agreement 1, Bydgoszcz Peasant List 1, Solidarity 80 1

NonCommunist NonSolidarity:
KPN 46, PPPP 16, MN 7, CHD 5, Western
Union 4, UPR 3, Autonomous Silesia 2, SD 1, Orthodox Election Committee 1,
Committee of Women Against Hardships 1, Podhale Union 1, Wielkopolska Group 1, Wielkopolska and Lubuski Inhabitants 1

Communist origin or linked: SLD 60, PSL 48, Party X 3
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held no later than NA
October 1995); results -

Communists: 70,000 members in the Communist successor parties (1990)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or Diet (Sejm)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kazimierz DZIEWANOWSKI; Chancery at 2,640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009; telephone (202) 234-3,800 through 3,802; there are Polish Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31,
Warsaw (mailing address is American Embassy Warsaw, Box 5,010, or APO AE 9,213-5,010); telephone 48 (2) 628-8,298; FAX 48 (2) 628-9,326; there is a
US Consulate General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Poland: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Poland - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Poland is undergoing a difficult transition from a
Soviet-style economy - with state ownership and control of productive assets - to a market economy. On January 1, 1990, the new Solidarity-led government implemented shock therapy by slashing subsidies, decontrolling prices, tightening the money supply, stabilizing the foreign exchange rate, lowering import barriers, and restraining state sector wages. As a result, consumer goods shortages and lines disappeared, and inflation fell from 640% in 1989 to 60% in 1991. Western governments, which hold two-thirds of Poland's $48 billion external debt, pledged in 1991 to forgive half of Poland's official debt by 1994, and the private sector grew, accounting for 22% of industrial production and 40% of nonagricultural output by 1991. Production fell in state enterprises, however, and the unemployment rate climbed steadily from virtually nothing in 1989 to 11.4% in December 1991. Poland fell out of compliance with its IMF program by mid-1991, and talks with commercial creditors stalled. The increase in unemployment and the decline in living standards led to popular discontent and a change in government in January 1991 and again in December. The new government has promised selective industrial intervention, some relaxation in monetary policy, and an improved social safety net, but will be constrained by the decline in output and the growing budget deficit.

GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $162.7 billion, per capita $4,300; real growth rate -5% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 27% of labor force; 75% of output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains low by
European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed, and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major exporter of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -14% (State sector 1991 est.)

Labor force: 17,104,000; industry and construction 36.1%; agriculture 27.3%; trade, transport, and communications 14.8%; government and other 21.8% (1989)
Organized labor: trade union pluralism
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.4% (end December 1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $19.5 billion; expenditures $22.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery 23%, metals 17%, chemicals 13%, fuels 11%, food 10% (1991 est.)
Partners: FRG 25.1%, former USSR 15.3%, UK 7.1%, Switzerland 4.7% (1990)

Imports: $12.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery 35%, fuels 20%, chemicals 13%, food 11%, light industry 7% (1991 est.)
Partners: FRG 20.1%, former USSR 19.8%, Italy 7.5%, Switzerland 6.4% (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zotych (z) per US$1 - 13,443 (March 1992), 10,576 (1991), 9,500 (1990), 1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987)

Poland - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 31,530,000 kW capacity; 136,300 million kWh produced, 3,610 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Poland - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Poland - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - 19.2 trillion zotych,
NA% of GDP (1991); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Poland - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

160 total, 160 usable; 85 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,659 m; 35
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas 4,500 km, crude oil 1,986 km, petroleum products 360 km (1987)



Waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1989)

Merchant marine:
222 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,851,016
GRT/4,019,531 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 79 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 12 container, 1 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 102 bulk, 1 passenger; Poland owns 1 ship of 6,333 DWT operating under Liberian registry

Civil air: 48 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Poland - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producers of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines for the international market; emerging as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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