Statistical information Romania 1992Romania

Map of Romania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Romania in the World

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Romania - Introduction 1992
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Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989.


Romania - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 237,500 km²
Land: 230,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
2,508 km total; Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km,
Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km,
Ukraine (south) 169 km


Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the
Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps


Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil (reserves being exhausted), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt
Land use

Land use: arable land: 43%; permanent crops: 3%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and woodland 28%; other 7%; includes irrigated 11%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Romania - People 1992
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Population: 23,169,914 (July 1992), growth rate 0.0% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Romanian(s; adjective - Romanian

Ethnic groups:
Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%,
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%


Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6%, Greek Catholic (Uniate) 3%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 15%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 14 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -3 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: frequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides; air pollution in south
Current issues note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans,
Moldova, and the Ukraine


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 96% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Romania - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions:
40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud,
Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj,
Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita,
Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova,
Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea,
Vrancea


Dependent areas

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947

National holiday:
National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)
Executive branch


Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory that increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being revised

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
President:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992); results -
Ion ILIESCU 85%, Radu CAMPEANU 10.5%, Ion RATIU 3.8%

Senate:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992); results - FSN 67%, other 33%; seats - (118 total) FSN 92, UDMR 12, PNL 9, PUNR 2, PNTCD 1,
MER 1, other 1

House of Deputies: last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992); results - FSN 66%, UDMR 7%, PNL 6%, MER 2%, PNTCD 2%, PUNR 2%, other 15%; seats - (387 total) FSN 263, UDMR 29, PNL 29, PNTCD 12, MER 12, PUNR 9, other 33

Executive branch

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor)


Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD,
ICAO, IFAD, IFC, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest),
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Aurel MUNTEANU; Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 232-4,747
US:
Ambassador John R. DAVIS; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9,
Bucharest (mailing address is APO AE 9,213-5,260); telephone 40 (0) 10-40-40; FAX 40 (0) 12-03-95


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Romania: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Romania - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Industry, which accounts for about one-third of the labor force and generates over half the GDP, suffers from an aging capital plant and persistent shortages of energy. The year 1991 witnessed about a 17% drop in industrial production because of energy and input shortages and labor unrest. In recent years the agricultural sector has had to contend with flooding, mismanagement, shortages of inputs, and disarray caused by the dismantling of cooperatives. A shortage of fuel and equipment in 1991 contributed to a lackluster harvest, a problem compounded by corruption and a poor distribution system. The new government is loosening the tight central controls of CEAUSESCU'S command economy. It has instituted moderate land reforms, with more than one-half of cropland now in private hands, and it has liberalized private agricultural output. Also, the new regime is permitting the establishment of private enterprises, largely in services, handicrafts, and small-scale industry. A law providing for the privatization of large state firms has been passed. Most of the large state firms have been converted into joint-stock companies, but the selling of shares and assets to private owners has been delayed. While the government has halted the old policy of diverting food from domestic consumption to hard currency export markets, supplies remain scarce in some areas. Furthermore, real wages in Romania fell about 20% in 1991, contributing to the unrest which forced the resignation of ROMAN in September. The new government continues to impose price ceilings on key consumer items.
GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $71.9 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth rate - 12% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 15% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -17% (1991 est.)

Labor force: 10,945,700; industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)
Organized labor: until December 1989, a single trade union system organized by the General Confederation of Romanian Trade Unions (UGSR) under control of the Communist Party; since CEAUSESCU'S overthrow, newly created trade and professional trade unions are joining umbrella organizations, including the Organization of Free Trade Unions, Fratia (Brotherhood), and the Alfa Cartel; many other trade unions have been formed
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $19 billion; expenditures $20 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and equipment 29.3%, fuels, minerals and metals 32.1%, manufactured consumer goods 18.1%, agricultural materials and forestry products 9.0%, other 11.5% (1989)
Partners: USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4% (1987)

Imports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: fuels, minerals, and metals 56.0%, machinery and equipment 25.5%, agricultural and forestry products 8.6%, manufactured consumer goods 3.4%, other 6.5% (1989)
Partners: Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40% (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 198.00 (March 1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990), 14.922 (1989), 14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987)


Romania - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 22,700,000 kW capacity; 64,200 million kWh produced, 2,760 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Romania - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Romania - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - 50 billion lei (unofficial), NA% of GDP (1991; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Romania - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
165 total, 165 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 15
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km, petroleum products 1,429 km, natural gas 6,400 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Merchant marine:
262 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,320,373
GRT/5,207,580 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 174 cargo, 2 container, 1 rail-car carrier, 9 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 13 petroleum tanker, 60 bulk, 2 combination ore/oil

Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Romania - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route


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