Statistical information Spain 1992Spain

Map of Spain | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Spain in the World
Spain in the World

Travelex


Spain - Introduction 1992
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Background: A powerful world empire in the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain ultimately yielded command of the seas to England, beginning with the defeat of the Armada in 1588. Spain subsequently failed to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions and fell behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II. In the second half of the 20th century Spain played a catch-up role in the western international community. Continuing problems are large-scale unemployment and the Basque separatist movement.


Spain - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 504,750 km²
Land:
499,400 km²; includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of
Morocco - Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera

Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries:
1,903.2 km total; Andorra 65 km, France 623 km,
Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km


Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes:
Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas


Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain:
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills;
Pyrenees in north


Elevation

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower
Land use

Land use: arable land: 31%; permanent crops: 10%; meadows and pastures 21%; forest and woodland 31%; other 7%; includes irrigated 6%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Spain - People 1992
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Population: 39,118,399 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Spaniard(s; adjective - Spanish

Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Languages:
Castilian Spanish; second languages include Catalan 17%,
Galician 7%, Basque 2%


Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 11 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; air pollution
Current issues note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 95% (male 97%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Spain - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain

Government type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias,
Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna,
Communidad Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid,
Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco; note - there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de
Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown


Dependent areas

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
Senate:
last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held NA October 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (208 total) PSOE 106, PP 79,
CiU 10, PNV 4, HB 3, AIC 1, other 5

Congress of Deputies:
last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held NA
October 1993); results - PSOE 39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, Communist-led coalition (IU) 9%, CiU 5%, PNV 1.2%, HB 1%, PA 1%, other 8.4%; seats - (350 total) PSOE 175, PP 106, CiU 18, IU 17, CDS 14, PNV 5, HB 4, other 11

Communists:
PCE membership declined from a possible high of 160,000 in 1977 to roughly 60,000 in 1987; the party gained almost 1 million voters and 10 deputies in the 1989 election; voters came mostly from the disgruntled socialist left; remaining strength is in labor, where it dominates the
Workers Commissions trade union (one of the country's two major labor centrals), which claims a membership of about 1 million; experienced a modest recovery in 1986 national election, nearly doubling the share of the vote it received in 1982


Executive branch: monarch, president of the government (prime minister), deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes Generales) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,
EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-8, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), NATO,
NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime de OJEDA; Chancery at 2,700 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009; telephone (202) 265-0190 or 0191; there are Spanish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
Rico)

US:
Ambassador Joseph ZAPPALA; Embassy at Serrano 75, 28,006 Madrid (mailing address is APO AE 9,642); telephone 34 (1) 577-4,000, FAX 34 (1) 577-5,735; there is a US Consulate General in Barcelona and a Consulate in
Bilbao


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Spain: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Spain - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Spain has done well since joining the EC in 1986. In accordance with its accession treaty, Spain has almost wholly liberalized trade and capital markets. Foreign and domestic investment has spurred average growth of 4% per year. Beginning in 1989, Madrid implemented a tight monetary policy to fight inflation - around 7% in 1989 and 1990. As a result growth slowed to 2.5% in 1991. Spanish policymakers remain concerned with inflation - still hovering at 6%. Government officials also are worried about 16% unemployment, although many people listed as unemployed work in the underground economy. Spanish economists believe that structural adjustments due to the ongoing integration of the European market are likely to lead to more displaced workers.
GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $487.5 billion, per capita $12,400; real growth rate 2.5% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products - grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 2.0% (1991 est.)

Labor force: 14,621,000; services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture 14%, construction 9% (1988)
Organized labor: less 10% of labor force (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 16.0% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $111.0 billion; expenditures $115.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $20.8 billion (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $60.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods, foodstuffs, machinery
Partners: EC 71.0%, US 4.9%, other developed countries 7.9%

Imports: $93.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodoties: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals
Partners:
EC 60.0%, US 8.0%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle
East 2.6%


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 104.79 (March 1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987)


Spain - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 46,589,000 kW capacity; 157,040 million kWh produced, 3,980 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Spain - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Spain - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $8.7 billion, 2% of GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Spain - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
105 total, 99 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways; 4
with runways over 3,659 m; 22
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km, petroleum products 1,794 km, natural gas 1,666 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Merchant marine:
278 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,915,409
GRT/5,228,378 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger, 86 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 15 container, 32 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 48 petroleum tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 3 specialized tanker, 45 bulk

Civil air: 210 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Spain - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market


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