Statistical information Sweden 1992Sweden

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Sweden in the World
Sweden in the World


Sweden - Introduction 1992
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Background: Having long lost its military prowess of the 17th century, Sweden has evolved into a prosperous and peaceful constitutional monarchy with a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements. As the 20th century comes to an end, this long successful formula is being undermined by high unemployment; the rising cost of a "cradle to the grave" welfare state; the decline of Sweden's competitive position in world markets; and indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe.

Sweden - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 449,964 km²
Land: 410,928 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: 2,205 km total; Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west


Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential
Land use

Land use: arable land: 7%; permanent crops: 0%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and woodland 64%; other 27%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Sweden - People 1992
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Population: 8,602,157 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Swede(s; adjective - Swedish

Ethnic groups:
homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority; foreign born or first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes,
Norwegians, Greeks, Turks) about 12%

Languages: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native languages

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution; acid rain
Current issues note:
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Sweden - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (lan, singular and plural);
Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan,
Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan,
Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan,
Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan,
Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens
Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held NA September 1994); results - Social Democratic Party 37.6%, Moderate Party (conservative) 21.9%, Liberal People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%,
Christian Democrats 7.1%, New Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist) 4.5%,
Green Party 3.4%, other 1.2%; seats - (349 total) Social Democratic 138,
Moderate Party (conservative) 80, Liberal People's Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New Democracy 25, Left Party (Communist) 16; note - the Green Party has no seats in the Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote

VP and SKP; VP, formerly the Left Party-Communists, is reported to have roughly 17,800 members and attracted 5.8% of the vote in the 1988 election; VP dropped the Communist label in 1990, but maintains a
Marxist ideology

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral parliament (Riksdag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AfDB, AG (observer) AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037; telephone (202) 944-5,600; there are Swedish Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, and New York

Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101, S-115 89
Stockholm; telephone 46 (8) 783-5,300; FAX 46 (8) 661-1964

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Sweden:
blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the
Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Sweden - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World
War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment, a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force.
Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. In the last few years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by inflation, growing absenteeism, and a gradual loss of competitiveness in international markets.

The new centerright government facing a sagging economic situation which is unlikely to improve until 1993 is pushing full steam ahead with economic reform proposals to end Sweden's recession and to prepare for possible EC membership in 1995. The freemarketoriented reforms are designed to spur growth maintain price stability lower unemployment create a more efficient welfare state and further adapt to EC standards. The measures include: cutting taxes, particularly the value-added tax (VAT) and levies on new and small business; privatization; liberalizing foreign ownership restrictions; and opening the welfare system to competition and private alternatives, which the government will still finance. Growth is expected to remain flat in 1992, but increase slightly in 1993, while inflation should remain around 3% for the next few years. On the down side, unemployment may climb to slightly over 4% in 1993, and the budget deficit will reach nearly 9 billion in 1992.
GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $147.6 billion, per capita $17,200; real growth rate -1.1% (1991)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -5.3% (1991)

Labor force: 4,552,000 community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining and manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%, banking, insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%, agriculture, fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)
Organized labor: 80% of labor force (1990 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $67.5 billion; expenditures $78.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $54.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
Partners: EC, (FRG, UK, Denmark), US, Norway

Imports: $50.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
Partners: EC 55.3%, US 8.4% (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 6.0259 (March 1992), 6.0475 (1991) 5.9188 (1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987)

Sweden - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 39,716,000 kW capacity; 142,000 million kWh produced, 16,700 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Sweden - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Sweden - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $6.2 billion, about 4% of GDP (FY91)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Sweden - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

254 total, 252 usable; 139 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 94 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas 84 km



Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Merchant marine:
186 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,665,902
GRT/3,646,165 DWT; includes 10 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 43 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 12 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 33 petroleum tanker, 28 chemical tanker, 4 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 7 combination ore/oil, 12 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo

Civil air: 115 major transports

Ports and terminals

Sweden - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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