Statistical information Thailand 1992Thailand

Map of Thailand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Thailand in the World

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Thailand - Introduction 1992
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Background: A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century; it was known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is the only southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II Thailand became a US ally following the conflict.


Thailand - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 514,000 km²
Land: 511,770 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes:
boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with
Vietnam


Climate:
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid


Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat; mountains elsewhere

Elevation

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite
Land use

Land use: arable land: 34%; permanent crops: 4%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and woodland 30%; other 31%; includes irrigated 7%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Thailand - People 1992
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Population: 57,624,180 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Thai (singular and plural; adjective - Thai

Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Languages: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and regional dialects

Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 20 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area
Current issues note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 35 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 71 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 93% (male 96%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Thailand - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions:
72 provinces (changwat, singular and plural);
Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang
Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi,
Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong
Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao,
Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya,
Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi,
Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram,
Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri,
Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai
Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon


Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: 22 December 1978; new constitution approved 7 December 1991

Legal system:
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23
February 1991 military coup


International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 21
House of Representatives:
last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held by
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (360 total) Samakki Tham 79, Chart Thai Party 74, New Aspiration Party 72, DP 44, Palang Dharma 41,
SAP 31, TCP 7, Solidarity Party 6, Rassadorn 4, Muanchon 1, Puangchon
Chotahi 1

Communists:
illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members; armed
Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 200 (est.)


Executive branch:
monarch, interim prime minister, three interim deputy prime ministers, interim Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council; following the military coup of 23 February 1991 a National Peace-Keeping
Council was set up


Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha) consists of an upper house or Senate (Vuthisatha) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn)


Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarndika)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi;
Embassy at 2,300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008; telephone (202) 483-7,200; there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New
York

US:
Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok (mailing address is APO AP 96,546); telephone 66 (2) 252-5,040; FAX 66 (2) 254-2,990; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in
Songkhla and Udorn


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Thailand - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries in
Asia, enjoyed a year of 8% growth in 1991, although down from an annual average of 11% growth between 1987 and 1990. The increasingly sophisticated manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment. The manufacturing and service sectors have accounted for the lion's share of economic growth. Thailand's traditional agricultural sector continued to become less important to the overall economy in 1991. The trade deficit continued to increase in 1991, to $11 billion; earnings from tourism and remittances grew marginally as a result of the Gulf War; and Thailand's import bill grew, especially for manufactures and oil. The government has followed fairly sound fiscal and monetary policies. Aided by increased tax receipts from the fast-moving economy; Bangkok recorded its fourth consecutive budget surplus in 1991. The government is moving ahead with new projects - especially for telecommunications, roads, and port facilities - needed to refurbish the country's overtaxed infrastructure. Political unrest and the military's shooting of antigovernment demonstrators in May 1992 have caused international businessmen to question Thailand's political stability.
Thailand's general economic outlook remains good, however, assuming the continuation of the government's progrowth measures.

GNP: exchange rate conversion - $92.6 billion, per capita $1,630; real growth rate 8% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca; other crops - rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 14% (1990 est.), accounts for about 25% of GDP

Labor force: 30,870,000; agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including government) 14% (1989 est.)
Organized labor: 309,000 union members (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.1% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $17.9 billion; expenditures $17.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.0 billion (FY92 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $27.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: machinery and manufactures 62%, food 28%, crude materials 7% (1990)
Partners: US 23.4%, Japan 17.2%, Singapore 7.3%, Germany 5.3%, Hong Kong 4.8%, UK 4.4%, Netherlands 4.3%, Malaysia, France, China (1990)

Imports: $39.0 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: machinery and manufactures 67%, chemicals l0%, fuels 9%, crude materials 6% (1990)
Partners:
Japan 30.2%, US 12%, Singapore 6.9%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4.8%,
China 3.2%, South Korea, Malaysia, UK (1990)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1 - 25.614 (March 1992), 25.517 (1991), 25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987)


Thailand - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 7,400,000 kW capacity; 37,500 million kWh produced, 660 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Thailand - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Thailand - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, about 3% of GNP (1992 budget)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Thailand - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
115 total, 97 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 13
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 350 km, petroleum products 67 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Merchant marine:
151 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 628,225
GRT/957,095 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 87 cargo, 11 container, 31 petroleum tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 2 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 4 refrigerated cargo, 2 combination bulk, 1 passenger

Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Thailand - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts


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