Statistical information Tonga 1992Tonga

Map of Tonga | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Tonga in the World
Tonga in the World

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Tonga - Introduction 1992
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Background: Deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations


Tonga - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 748 km²
Land: 718 km²
Comparative:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington,
DC


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: no specific limits
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: none

Climate:
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to
May), cool season (May to December)


Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Elevation

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil
Land use

Land use: arable land: 25%; permanent crops: 55%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 2%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Tonga - People 1992
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Population: 103,114 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Tongan(s; adjective - Tongan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

Languages: Tongan, English

Religions: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 26 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -11 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to cyclones (October to April); deforestation
Current issues note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can read and write a simple message in Tongan or English (1976)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Tonga - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nuku`alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha`apai, Tongatapu, Vava`u

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21
Legislative Assembly:
last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held NA
February 1993); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist


Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council


Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa TUITA resides in London
US: the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Tonga: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Tonga - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to offset its trade deficit.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $92 million, per capita $900; real growth rate 2.5% (FY90 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Industries: tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 15% (FY86; accounts for 11% of GDP

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining
Organized labor: none
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $30.6 million; expenditures $48.9 million, including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (FY89 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $9.6 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.)
Commodoties: coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish
Partners: NZ 35%, Australia 22%, US 13%, Fiji 5% (FY90)

Imports: $59.9 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.)
Commodoties: food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels, chemicals
Partners: NZ 30%, Australia 23%, US 12%, Japan 7% (FY90)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.2987 (January 1992), 1.2961 (1991), 1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989), 1.2799 (1988), 1.4282 (1987)


Tonga - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Tonga - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Tonga - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Tonga - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1
with runways 2,440-3,659; 1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,511 GRT/17,816
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals


Tonga - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Adrenaline


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