Statistical information Turkmenistan 1992Turkmenistan

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Turkmenistan - Introduction 1992
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Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885 Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.


Turkmenistan - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 488,100 km²
Land: 488,100 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
3,736 km total; Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km,
Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km


Coastline: 0 km

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: none

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; borders Caspian Sea in west

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt, magnesium
Land use

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Turkmenistan - People 1992
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Population: 3,838,108 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Turkmen(s; adjective - Turkmen

Ethnic groups: Turkmen 72%, Russian 9%, Uzbek 9%, other 10%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Religions: Islam 85%, Eastern Orthodox 10%, unknown 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 36 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -3 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: NA
Current issues note: landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 94 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 66 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA) age 15 and over can read and write

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Turkmenistan - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: republic

Capital: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)

Administrative divisions:
4 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast');
Balkan (Nebit-Dag), Chardzhou, Mary, Tashauz; note - the rayons around
Ashgabat are under direct republic jurisdiction; all oblasts have the same name as their administrative center except Balkan Oblast, centered at
Nebit-Dag


Dependent areas

Independence:
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union; formerly Turkmen
Soviet Socialist Republic)


National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
President: last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA June 1997); results - Saparmurad NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed)
Majlis: last held 7 January 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) elections not officially by party, but Communist Party members won nearly 90% of seats
Communists: renamed Democratic Party, 16 December 1990

Executive branch:
president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers,
Council of Ministers


Legislative branch: Majlis

Judicial branch: NA

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CIS, CSCE, IBRD, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation: NA
US:
Ambassador-designate Joseph HULINGS; Embassy at Yubilenaya Hotel,
Ashgabat (Ashkhabad) (mailing address is APO; AE 9,862); telephone 8 (011) 7-3,630-24-49-08


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Turkmenistan: green field with five claret carpet gels (that is, a repeated carpet pattern) on the hoist side; a white crescent and five white stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet gels

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Turkmenistan - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Like the other 15 former Soviet republics, Turkmenistan faces enormous problems of economic adjustment - to move away from Moscow-based central planning toward a system of decisionmaking by private enterpreneurs, local government authorities, and, hopefully, foreign investors. This process requires wholesale changes in supply sources, markets, property rights, and monetary arrangements. Industry - with 10% of the labor force - is heavily weighted toward the energy sector, which produced 11% of the ex-USSR's gas and 1% of its oil. Turkmenistan ranked second among the former
Soviet republics in cotton production, mainly in the irrigated western region, where the huge Karakumskiy Canal taps the Amu Darya.

GDP: purchasing power equivalent - NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate -0.6% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton, fruits, vegetables

Industries: oil and gas, petrochemicals, fertilizers, food processing, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 4.1% (1991)

Labor force: 1,542,000; agriculture and forestry 42%, industry and construction 21%, other 37% (1990)
Organized labor: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20-25% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $239 million (1990)
Commodoties: natural gas, oil, chemicals, cotton, textiles, carpets
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Imports: $970 million (1990)
Commodoties: machinery and parts, plastics and rubber, consumer durables, textiles
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA


Turkmenistan - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3,170,000 kW capacity; 14,900 million kWh produced, 4,114 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Turkmenistan - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Turkmenistan - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Turkmenistan - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: NA

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: NA

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Turkmenistan - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption; status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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