Statistical information Venezuela 1992Venezuela

Map of Venezuela | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Venezuela in the World
Venezuela in the World

Iberostar Hotels

Venezuela - Introduction 1992
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Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations which are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.

Venezuela - Geography 1992
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 912,050 km²
Land: 882,050 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km,
Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 15 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos; Guyana highlands in southeast


Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Land use

Land use: arable land: 3%; permanent crops: 1%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and woodland 39%; other 37%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Venezuela - People 1992
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Population: 20,675,970 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Venezuelan(s; adjective - Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%

Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 27 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo
Current issues note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 88% (male 87%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Venezuela - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Venezuela

Government type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions:
21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* (territorios, singular - territorio), 1 federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal);
Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes,
Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon,
Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre,
Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note - the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18
President: last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results - Carlos Andres PEREZ (AD) 54.6%, Eduardo FERNANDEZ (COPEI) 41.7%, other 3.7%
Senate: last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, other 4; note - 3 former presidents (1 from AD, 2 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate seats
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held NA
December 1993); results - AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, other 14.6%; seats - (201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, other 19

Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la
Republica) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI Bottaro;
Chancery at 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007; telephone (202) 342-2,214; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in Baltimore, Boston,
Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL; Embassy at Avenida Francisco de
Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address is P.
O. Box 62,291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO AA 34,037); telephone 58 (2) 285-2,222;
FAX 58 (2) 285-0336; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Venezuela: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Venezuela - Economy 1992
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Economy overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted for 23% of GDP, 80% of central government revenues, and 80% of export earnings in 1991. President PEREZ introduced an economic readjustment program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest rates threw the economy into confusion, causing an 8% decline in GDP in 1989. However, the economy recovered part way in 1990, and grew by 9.2% in 1991, led by the petroleum sector.
GDP: exchange rate conversion - $52.3 billion, per capita $2,590; real growth rate 9.2% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products - corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 5.4% (1991 est.), accounts for one-fourth of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 5,800,000; services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16% (1985)
Organized labor: 32% of labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.3% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $13.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $15.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum 80%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures
Partners: US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)

Imports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment
Partners: US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 65.39 (March 1992), 56.82 (1991), 46.90 (1990), 34.68 (1989), 14.50 (fixed rate 1987-88)

Venezuela - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 20,128,000 kW capacity; 55,753 million kWh produced, 2,762 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Venezuela - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Venezuela - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $1.95 billion, 4% of
GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Venezuela - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

308 total, 287 usable; 135 with permanent-surface runways; none
with runways over 3,659 m; 14
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km



Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 790,108
GRT/1,257,637 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 22 cargo, 1 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 17 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 8 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft

Ports and terminals

Venezuela - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine transit the country from Colombia


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